Research Papers of ACTAVELIT

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Volume : 1 | Issue : 4

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Characters and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Typical and Atypical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Samples in Northwestern Nigeria

Abdulhadi Sale Kumurya
DOI Number :      Page number :1-8
Keyword:

Bacterial colonies can differ greatly in their morphologies. These differences can help us in identifying different species of bacteria. The clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus are characterized by standard biochemical tests. To observe the biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains against some conventional antibiotics. One thousand six hundred and ninety two (1692) pathogenic S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller- Hinton broth at 37oC. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as catalase, coagulase, DNase test, and test for ß-heamolysin, Beta-lactamase production test, hydrolysis of gelatin and galactose and fermentation of mannitol, lactose, maltose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by disc agar diffusion test. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was used as a reference control organism. This study reports results on the biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of typical and atypical 1692 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from various clinical samples. From this study, it was observed that 100% of Staphylococcus aureus showed positive results in catalase, tube coagulase, DNase test, Beta-lactamase production test, gelatin, galactose hydrolysis while only 1219 (96.0%) MSSA and 396 (94.0%) MRSA were positive for slide coagulase production test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that all the isolates (MSSA and MRSA) were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and 24.2% were resistant to oxacillin. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Vancomycin, fusidic acid, rifampicin and gentamicin were found to be the most effective drugs against the S. aureus isolates among the antibiotics used. These findings show that all the isolates have catalase, coagulase enzyme, DNase enzyme, Beta-lactamases, gelatin, galactose  hydrolysis, mannitol and lactose fermenting activity.

Investigation of Citrus sinensis (L.) Peel Insecticidal Efficacy on Sitophilus zeamais

Saburi Abimbola Atanda, Chuks Fidel Nwanade , Hellen Ogechukwu Izunwanne and Onyedikachi Chiazom Ezenwafor
DOI Number :      Page number :9-12
Keyword:

Pulverised peel of Citrus sinensis insecticidal efficacy was investigated against Sitophilus zeamais on Zea mays. The powdered dosages at 5 g, 10g and 15 g were used for each treatment and percentage mortalities were monitored after 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. The percentage mortality of Sitophilus zeamais at 72 hours in 15g was the highest (78.3 %) followed by 10g (31.7 %) and 5g (21.7 %) in that order which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Result from this study has shown that pulverised peel of Citrus sinensis which is an agricultural waste is effective in controlling Sitophilus zeamais. It can also be incorporated in post-harvest loss prevention system as it is cheap and serves as an alternative to synthetic pesticides.

An Ethnoveterinary Survey of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by the Santal Tribe at Jamtala Village Under Sadar Upazila of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh

A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman, Moriom Jamila
DOI Number :      Page number :13-28
Keyword:

An Ethno veterinary survey was carried out on the indigenous knowledge of Santal tribe and folk medicine practitioners at Jamtala Village under Sadar Upazila of Chapai Nawabganj District, Bangladesh. The study was conducted during December 2013 and June 2015 using open ended questionnaires, frequent field visits and interviews with tribal practitioner’s ethno medicinal information. A total of 53 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families that have been recorded from the tribal practitioners to treat against diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, lice infections, cough, cold, gastrointestinal, worms, kidney disorder, foot and mouth diseases, dysentery, snake bite, kasanoor forest disease, fever, skin disease etc. The present study may provide the traditional knowledge of tribes and local healers to cure cattle diseases. Further studies are needed for the phytochemical and pharmaceutical analysis of drugs and to conserve medicinal plants for future use.

The Challenge of Medical Waste Management: A Case Study in Alborz Province, Iran

Manoochehr Khazaee1 *, Amir Hossein Hamidian, Mohammad Taheri, Arash Ketabforoush Badri, Safura Rabizadeh, Vida Kardanmoghadam, Aria Khazaee, Saeed Ketabforoush Badri
DOI Number :      Page number :29-38
Keyword:

In developing countries such as Iran, medical wastes are not properly managed. Appropriate medical waste management decreases the risk of spreading infections, environmental hazards and public health risks. In recent years, environmental regulatory agencies and waste producers have tried to reach appropriate medical waste management plans. In this study, different aspects of the current status of medical waste management such as generation, segregation and collection, storage, treatment, training and education and sewage were investigated in Alborz province. Standard questionnaire based on World Health Organization applied for gathering information. Questionnaire consisted of seven sections, such as general information of hospital, waste generation, separation, collection, temporary storage location, waste management workshop for workers and personnel and sewage status of hospitals. Medical waste management in Alborz province were compared with enacted law in Iran and other similar studies. The results showed that the average occupancy percentage of each bed in Alborz province hospitals was 76.78%.The average generation rate of total waste was 4.05 kg/ bed-day. The generation rates of hazardous-infectious wastes, general wastes and sharp wastes were 2.26, 1.72 and 0.016 kg/bed-day, respectively. All hospitals had a location for their waste temporary storage and most of those (78.5%) treated their wastes, especially with autoclaving. In compare with enacted law and other studies, the current system of medical waste management in Alborz province is in a proper situation but it needs further improvement

Impact of Silymarine on Neurophysiological of Male Albino Rats

Haleema Al-Nahari
DOI Number :      Page number :39-50
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The objective of the present work is to study the possibility of involved neurotransmitters in the CNS side effects due to the administration of silymarine in male albino rats. The frontal cortex of silymarine treated groups revealed decreased of taurine, GABA and dopamine and elevation of histidine, alanine, glycine, serine levels, and noradrenalin, serotonin and AChE activities in a time related effect. In the hippocampus area there are elevation of glycine, serine level, GABA, noradrenalin, dopamine and serotonin but reductions of taurine, histidine level, alanine and AChE activities in a time related effect. Overall, the data suggest that there is a shift in the balance between neurotransmitters towards increased production of excitatory potent in groups subjected to silymarine administration.