Research Papers of ACTAVELIT

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Volume : 2 | Issue : 3

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Immunological and Histopathological Effect of Plant Extract on Schistocerca Gregaria

Badriah M. K. Asiri
DOI Number :      Page number :1-11
Keyword:

The desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk) is one of the serious pests attacking vegetables and wide varieties of other field crops in Egypt and other different countries. The study also was extended to make the influence of the most powerful insect extracts. Citrullus colocynthis, and Guayacum officinalis extract post formulation on S. gergaria larvae. This study was carried out to identify the effect plant extract on differential and total haemocyte counts and midgut histopathologiocal changes of S. gregaria Four types of haemocytes
marked by; prohaemocytes (PRs), plasmatocytes (PLs), granulocytes (GRs) and  oenocytoids (OEs). The percentage of PRs decreased in insects fed on leaves treated with Citrullus colocynthis, and Guayacum officinalis plant. The percentage of PLs increased, while the percentage of GRs decreased in all tested insects treated. The percentages of oenocytoids (OEs) increased in insect fed treated compared with control. Results indicated that THCs of insects fed on leaves treated significantly decreased in all insects treated. Also, Anatomical pathological disturbances is very demonstrated in the midgut wall of the body cells of this pest. Among the most recorded observations are vacuolation, destruction of the cells. 

Development and Characterization of Chitosan from Shrimp Exoskeleton

Saburi Abimbola Atanda, Pessu Patricia Mejida Sumaila
DOI Number :      Page number :12-17
Keyword:

Chitosan obtained from deacetylation of chitin is widely distributed in nature, being the main structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. The exoskeletons are waste creating environmental pollutant hence the need to transform them to useful products. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of shrimp using alkaline and acidic treatments. The product obtained was characterized using FT-IR and titrimetric methods to obtain the various functional groups and degree of deacetylation respectively. FT-IR result showed various functional groups including carbonyl, amine and hydroxyl at different wave numbers while titrimetric method gave the degree of deacetylation of chitosan as 67%. The results obtained from this study have shown that shrimp exoskeleton is a good source of chitosan and it could be improved upon to give more quality chitosan.

Isolation of Endophytes from Prosopis and Preliminary Studies of Their Effect on Seed Germination under Salt Stress

Anjali P. Soni, Vanita P. Patel
DOI Number :      Page number :18-25
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Salinity is one of the main factors responsible for soil deterioration and poor agricultural productivity. Saline soils constitute an unfavorable environment for the plant growth. The presence of excess ions produces irreversible biochemical and physiological perturbations in plants. Endophytic microorganisms are ubiquitous in plants and colonize internal tissues without causing any harm or gaining benefit. These fungal and bacterial microbes colonize in living tissues of plants and involved in promotion of plant growth. Colonization of host plants by these endophytes believed to contribute to plant genotype adaptability to biotic and abiotic stresses. Prosopis is one of the most common trees of India mainly known to grow in saline soils. In our studies we have isolated the endophytic fungus and bacteria residing in the root, stem and leaves of the Prosopis plant and observed their effect on germination of seeds of Fenugreek, Tomato and Mung beans. Pot assay was performed to study the germination percentage of the seeds for 14 days. Seeds were treated with inoculums of different fungi and bacteria isolated from different parts of the plants. Positive results were observed with fungi but no effect of bacterial inoculums was observed. The results obtained showed strains of fungi isolated from roots, stem and leaves had beneficial impact on the seed germination of Tomato as 100% germination percentage was obtained which was more than normal and control set ups. The germinated seedlings of Tomato under salt stress with fungi treated inoculums found to be healthier than seedlings grown in normal soil. No appreciable effect of endophytic fungus was obtained on Mung beans and Fenugreek seeds. Fungi are reported to secrete growth hormones which help in enhancing the germination of seeds. Promotion of plant growth was detected with the help of qualitative test for the production of IAA. The results were found to be positive with some fungal strains suggesting their establishment inside the host plant resulting in seed germination under stress conditions.

A Comparative Pharmacological Investigation of Tissue Cultured and Field Grown Bacopa Monnieri Plant Extracts

Arun Sundriyal, Poonam Rishishwar, Devendra Singh Rawat
DOI Number :      Page number :26-36
Keyword:

Bacopa monnieri Linn. Pennell (Scrophulariaceae) is a memory enhancer which is used in phytopharmaceuticals. Its scarcity has increased the scope of its in vitro production.To compare various pharmacological activities of tissue cultured plants with conventionally grown plant.Nodes of Bacopa were surface sterilized and cultured using callus culture and organogenesis. The methanol extract of callus (CE), organogenetic (OE) and field grown plants (FE) were evaluated for antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity using agar disc diffusion method/ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity and human red blood cell membrane stabilization method, respectively. Bacoside A was identified in all extracts using high performance liquid chromatography.Treatment with mercuric chloride (0.05%) for 5 min yielded aseptic nodes. Zone of inhibition (ZOI) (mm) formed against Staphylococcus aureus by FE was 22, followed by CE (18). Salmonella typhi was best inhibited by FE (11). For Escherischia coli, ZOI of FE, CE and OE were 14, 10 and 12, respectively. MIC of CE; OE; FE on S.aureus; S.typhi; E.coli was found to be 0.4; 0.4; 0.2%, 0.2; 0.8; 0.4%, 0.2; 0.2; 0.1%, respectively [1]. None of the extracts showed activity against Klebsiella pneumonia. IC50 (mg/mL) of CE (0.109 ± 1.96) was higher than FE (0.292 ± 1.74). At 300 µg, CE exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activity (96.1%) as compared to diclofenac sodium (70.0%). Chromatography confirmed the presence of Bacoside A in all extracts.This study enlightens the scope of conservation and large-scale production of Bacopa plants using in vitro techniques.

Effect of Piper guineensees on Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Watermelon (Citrulus lanatus) Juice Stored in Refrigerator and Ambient

Saburi Abimbola Atanda, Adekalu Olabisi, Adebiyi Agboola, Boluwaji Adeniyi, Tunde Odebunmi, Ruth Obong and Judith Onyekwere
DOI Number :      Page number :37-41
Keyword:

Extracted juice from watermelon containing 0.01g Piper guineenses stored in refrigerator (6±2 oC) and on the shelf (28±1oC) using polyethylene bottles was evaluated for physicochemical and organoleptic changes. pH, total soluble sugars, titratable acidity and organoleptic evaluation of the juice was carried out till deterioration sets in. Results showed that the sample stored in the refrigerator kept for 7 days while the sample on the shelf lasted for 3 days. pH value decreased from 5.40 to 4.80 and 5.70 for the sample stored in the refrigerator and on the shelf respectively while TSS increased from 0.064%Brix to 0.435% Brix and 0.578%Brix for sample stored in refrigerator and shelf respectively. Titratable acidity decreased from 2.90 % to 0.20% and 0.50% for samples for the juice stored in the refrigerator and on shelf respectively. All these changes were statistically significant (p<0.05). The sample stored on the shelf lost its organoleptic qualities on the third day with an average value less than 2 for taste, smell and colour.  However, the juice stored in the fridge lost its organoleptic qualities at the 7th day with an average value of 3.0, 2.90 and 2.80 for taste, smell and colour respectively.  From the results, juice extracted from water melon cannot be kept at ambient temperature beyond 3 days without proper refrigeration and an additive. This calls for alternative way of extending its shelf life in the absence of electricity supply using local spice like P. guineenses and to make it available during off season.

Formulation development and evaluation of mucoadhesive intestinal retentive tablets for treatment of schizophrenia.

Swati Yadav, Jayesh Dwivedi, Narendra Kumar Nyola, Priya Poduval
DOI Number :      Page number :42-57
Keyword:

The objective of the present study was to formulate intestinal retentive mucoadhesive tablets of Ziprasidone HCl that would prolong the duration of the drug release and help maintain the drug plasma concentration, thus reducing the dose frequency in treatment of schizophrenia as the marketed formulation of ziprasidone HCl have limitations of low oral bioavailability and twice daily dosage which may lead to non compliance in Schizophrenic patients. I.M route has 100% bioavailability but it is inappropriate for regular use and requires administration by qualified person. Based on preformulation studies, five prototype tablet batches were designed containing carbopol 934 and different proportions of HPMCK4M, HPMCK15M by direct compression method. Prepared tablets were evaluated for various in-process and
finished product quality control parameters such as hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content uniformity, swelling study and in-vitro release studies. Fabricated tablets showed acceptable results for all above evaluations. Carbopol 934 as the mucoadhesive polymer provides sustained release of drug in the intestinal pH for 24hours. The developed  formulations are a viable alternative to marketed dosage form by virtue of their ability to the release of the drug upto a period of 24 hours.

Assessment Method for Course Outcomes and Program Outcome

Geeta Deswal, Kumar Guarve, Ashwani Dhingra, Priyanka Kriplani, Bhawna Chopra, Rameshwar Dass
DOI Number :      Page number :58-68
Keyword:

One of the key aspects in Outcome-Based Education (OBE) is the assessment of the course outcomes. The Outcome based Education (OBE) has been one of the major concern of most academic institution in India, especially among the Pharmacy institution as the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) has made it compulsory towards program accreditation. COs are the attributes, that the student is expected to have or obtained at the time he or she completing the course. Each course under the bachelor programme has its own set of COs. At the end of each course, the COs needs to be assessed and evaluated to check whether it has been attained or not. This paper aims to provide an evaluation method for the attainment of course Outcomes for Pharmacy Program as defined by National Board of Accreditation (NBA). NBA requires specific evaluation techniques and assessment methods for measuring the attainment of Course Outcomes and Program Outcomes. Accordingly this paper describes the assessment method used to measure the PO via direct assessment of the Course Outcomes and indirect methods through surveys. Course Outcomes for each course were developed and surveys were conducted throughout the year to assess the level of awareness and understanding of OBE.