Research Papers of ACTAVELIT


Volume : 2 | Issue : 4

Page Number:

Applying Lysimeters for Developing Crop Coefficients and Efficient Irrigation Practices for corn hybrids

Alireza Saberi
DOI Number :      Page number :1-7

Applying lysimeters are expensive but invaluable tools for measuring crop evapotranspiration and developing crop coefficients. Crop coefficients are used by both growers and researchers to estimate crop water use and accurately schedule irrigations. Two lysimeters of this type were installed in 2003 in Iranshahr Research Station in the Blochestan of Iran, to determine daily rates of crop and potential (grass) evapotranspiration and develop crop coefficients for better irrigation management of corn hybrids. Irrigation is an increasingly important practice for sustainable agriculture in the Midlist region, as well as in other semi-arid environments of southern Iran. Evapotranspiration (ET) of corn hybrids were measured and compared in 2003 and 2004 under lysimeters, and studied differences in growth, yield and water use efficiency (WUE).

In both years, corn was planted in July and harvested in October in two different fields of 1000m2 each, containing drainage lysimeters to directly measure ET. Irrigation differentiation was made upon crop evapotranspiration measured on the lysimeters, water was then applied at 100 and 60% of ET. Full irrigation treatment (I-100) was managed for high productivity, whereas deficit irrigation treatment (I-60) was maintained at 60% of field capacity.

Water stress was applied continuously during the growing cycle. The analysis revealed that SC 704 hybrid is suitable variety for southern of Iran, because WUE of this hybrid %4.4 higher than SC604, While water using of this variety is %2.03 more than SC604. Meanwhile yield of SC 704 %6.73 was higher than SC604. The new crop coefficients will facilitate irrigation scheduling in the crops and help to achieve full yield potential without over irrigation.

Assessing Insured Clients Moral Hazard at Bawku Municipality on National Health Insurance Scheme

Francis Abugri Akum and Margaret Anore Akudugu
DOI Number :      Page number :8-14

The government of Ghana introduced the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2003 through an Act of Parliament (Act 650) as a strategy to improve financial access to quality basic health care services. Although attendance at health facilities has increased since the introduction of the NHIS, there have been media reports of widespread abuse of the NHIS by scheme operators, service providers and insured persons. The aim of the study was to assess the insured moral hazard (demand moral hazard) by comparing the utilisation rate of health facilities by the insured and uninsured in the Bawku Municipality of Ghana. This was a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 270 insured and 120 uninsured clients accessing Outpatient Patient Department (OPD) services using patient exit interview (survey) structured questionnaire in both private and public health facilities. A total of 278 both insured and uninsured consumers had used a health facility within the last 6 months of which 229 (82.4%) were among the insured and 49 (17.6%) were among the uninsured. Many more uninsured consumers, 71 (59.56%) had not use any health facility within the previous six months as compared to just 41 (15%) of insured consumers. As many as 139 (60.70%) insured clients had visited three or more times compared to 5 (10.53%) of the uninsured. In conclusion, the existence of NHIS insured clients’ moral hazard is a significant phenomenon that is occurring in the Municipality. The challenge of consumer moral hazard on the functioning and long term sustainability of NHIS is therefore critical.

Length- Weight Relationships and Condition Factors for Fifteen Species Caught by Experimental Bottom Trawl along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast

Elsayed Haroun Khamis Akel
DOI Number :      Page number :15-19

The length- weight relationship parameters (a and b) were presented for 15 fish species, obtained from cruises of an Egyptian Research Vessel “Salsabil”, namely: Pagellus erythrinus; Pagrus pagrus ; Pagellus acarne; Diplodus vulgaris; Saurida undosquamis; Mullus surmuletus; Mullus barbatus; Trigla lyra; Serranus hepatus; Spicara smaris; Lagocephalus  lagocephalus; Xyrichthys novacula; Citharus linguatula; Equulites klunzingeri and Bothus podas. Overall, 4265 specimens represented 11 families. Ten economic species were found belonging to six families and five non-economic species were found belonging to five families. The values of b parameter varied between 2.602 (Serranus hepatus) and 3.4743 (Diplodus vulgaris). The condition factors (K) of the 15 fish species ranged between 2.517±0.1126 for Serranus hepatus and 0.608±0.028 for Saurida undosquamis.

Protection of Grains and Cereals: A Review

Godwin Chiwuike Ihionu, Samuel Agoda, Saburi Abimbola Atanda* and Usanga, Otu Edet
DOI Number :      Page number :20-31

The protection of stored grains against insects was reviewed. The various sources of insect infestation of stored grains and the type of insects infesting grains were identified. It was observed that poor handling of the products during harvesting and processing prior to storage among others were identified as sources of insect infestation of stored grains and this result in poor quality and loss in market value of the grains. It was established that susceptibility of the grains to attack by insects was influenced by their moisture content. Hence, for longterm storage, grains must be dried to safe moisture content. Good sanitation practice will help farmers reduce pest population as a preventive measure. Other methods of reducing pest infestation include sun drying when insect presence is noticed, mixing of local spices and otrains (dry neem leaves, dry pepper etc), use of fumigants, and the knowledge of the biology of the insect pests will help to reduce the menace of insects from our stored
grains. In order to minimize the problems of insect pests on stored grains, harvesting methods be improved upon as to reduce grain losses due to injury which attract insects. Design of warehouses should be done in such a way that effective storage of grains will be achieved (good site location, proper ventilation etc), stored products chemicals manufacturing company be set up in Nigeria while research institutes and universities in the country be given sufficient fund to execute research programmes on effective crop storage and management.

Climate Change: Urban Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case-Study of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Owolabi, Babatunde Oluwaseyi (Ph.D)
DOI Number :      Page number :32-45

Climate change has become a global trend in which all the countries in the world are clamouring for a change in the usage of the natural resources in the environment. Since climate change is a global phenomenon, there is need for enlightenment on it. Climate change should be introduced in the tertiary institutions curriculum especially in social, physical, natural and environmental sciences. Where the students will learn about climate
change. The introduction of climate change in urban and regional planning curriculum in tertiary institutions.This research paper discusses definition of climate change and urban vulnerability, Historical background of climate change in the world, historical background of climate change in Nigeria, historical perspectives of floods in Ibadan, anthropogenic and natural causes of floods in Ibadan, theory of climate change, relationship between climate change and urban and regional planning practice, implications for urban and regional planning education: a policy research agenda for climate change planning.

Management of Tamaka Swasa with an Ayurvedic compound and Pranayama (AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY)

Dr. Saurabh Purwar, Dr. Vineet Kumar Agnihotri and Dr. Himanshu Sharma
DOI Number :      Page number :46-52

The “Tamak swasa” which has been described elaborately in Ayurvedic literature is much similar to the Bronchial Asthma. Swasa is a clinical entity expressed as various respiratory impairments, having five types and Tamak swasa is one of them. In Ayurvedic literature, Swasa has been mentioned as a life threatening disease in which Tamaka swasa is a yapya disorder, which can be controlled only with lifelong therapy. If the patients of Tamaka swasa drops or discontinue the treatment, disease aggravates again with more severity. Modern medicine is rapidly developing as instant relief medications, but the hazards of beta agonists, toxicity of xanthenes and complications of corticosteroids etc anxiously turn the view towards the alternative modalities in the management of bronchial asthma.So, there is a great need to find out a safe and effective remedy for more acceptability and better compliance, whichcan be traced from unsheathed treasure of Ayurveda and yoga.The analysis of the symptomatology of Tamakswasa showed that in this disease,Vata-Kaphaprakopa, Dhatvagnimandya,Rasa Dhatudushti and Pranvahasrotodusti are the main features.Drugs havingDipana, Pachana, ushnaand are speciallyvatanulomakaproperties seems to be effective in this condition.Taking all these points into consideration, this study was plannedto evaluate the role ofAmritadikwath and Pranayama in the management of Tamak swasa after compiling all available references from classical authentic texts.The present work evaluates easily available, inexpensive & non-controversial herbal drugs as well as Pranayama.