Research Papers of ACTAVELIT

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Volume : 3 | Issue : 1

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Economic Analysis of Effect of Temperature Variability on Rice Production in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

EZEKIEL, Ayinde Alani
DOI Number :      Page number :1-7
Keyword:

This study was devoted to the economic analysis of the effect of Temperature variability on rice production in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State. It examined constraints encountered by the farmers in adapting to Temperature variability. A total of 120 farmers was sampled for interview with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire, using purposive random sampling. Descriptive statistical tools were used to capture the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, while Regression model was used to determine the effect of temperature on rice production. The empirical results of the regression analysis model revealed that: education was significant at (P<0.05), farm size (P<0.05), income (P<0.1), level of awareness (P<0.01), level of adaptation (P<0.1), favourable education (P<0.01), sunlight intensity (P<0.1). All these variables had significant impact on the effect of temperature on rice production with intercept of -49225.13. This result suggests that regular visit of extension workers; availability of credit facilities, regular electricity supply, access to adequate water supply, farmers will adopt various adaptation measures that can lead to improvement in practicing rice production.

Students’ Housing as a Correlate of Academic Performance and Health Status at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Owolabi, Babatunde Oluwaseyi
DOI Number :      Page number :8-26
Keyword:

The University of Ibadan is faced with a persistent challenge of providing adequate students’ housing as a result of explosion in the students’ population in consequence of which the on-and off-campus students’ housing policy was adopted. Existing literature on students’ housing investigated on-campus students’ housing but neglected off-campus students’ housing. This study therefore, examined student’ housing as a correlate of health status and academic performance at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Systems theory provided the analytical framework, while survey research design was employed. A systematic random sampling technique was adopted to select respondents among registered on-and off-campus students. Five percent (A total of 400 on-campus and 700 off-campus students) were randomly selected from the 12 on-campus halls of residence and 22 off-campus hostels respectively. Off-campus hostels were drawn from University of Ibadan adjoining residential neighbourhoods (Agbowo, Orogun, Ajibode, Apete, Samonda and Bodija). A questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, health status indicator (reported cases of illnesses of malaria, cold/catarrh, cholera/diarrhoea and typhoid for the past two weeks at the time of survey), academic performance indicator (Cumulative Grade Point Average [CGPAs] of the 2009/2010 session). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression) at p≤0.05. Off-campus students took ill more than their on-campus counterparts (β=-1.8): malaria (off-campus 40.3%; on-campus 23.3%); cold/catarrh (off-campus 18.3%; on-campus 16.7%), cholera/diarrhoea (off-campus 16.7%; on-campus 14.9%) and typhoid (off-campus 15.2%; on-campus 14.9%). On the average, on-campus students had a better academic performance (CGPA=4.2) than off-campus students (CGPA=3.5). On-campus students’ housing was more conducive for health and learning than off-campus in the University of Ibadan.

Student Engagement through Research Abroad

Carole South-Winter
DOI Number :      Page number :27-35
Keyword:

The benefits of research engagement on intellectual growth and application of knowledge are acknowledged. Students participating in research, during faculty-led programs, experience academic rigor, active engagement with residents of the host country, collaborative activities, and application of knowledge which differs from traditional courses. Ghana is a young developing nation with a developing health care system. The government-subsidized health care system struggles to provide access to care by all citizens and strives to meet its’ pledge to provide affordable insurance. Inconsistency in rural, remote, and urban regions in areas of technology, water, sanitation, and education is a barrier to universal health. A pledge to build 300 polyclinics in Ghana by a large health care system near the university is the impetus for a research interest and a platform for students to participate in research during a faculty-led program. Eighteen students, known as student investigators will collect surveys from 157 residents of Ghana and 61 health care providers. Student investigators enjoy this experience recognizing an increase in their learning and self-confidence while providing meaningful results to a large U.S. health care system. One student investigator said “I think that this experience had a very positive effect on my career as a health care professional. This experience taught me a lot about communication and research. I think that communication is very important for a pharmacist and for almost all jobs in the health care field. This experience has taught me about respecting another culture and communicating with people who are different than me. I now feel that I am better equipped to deal and communicate with the people that I will be helping. I will not judge them and I will be able to use the tools I learned to help them” (2014).

Evaluation of Various Fungicides as a Seed Dresser against Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides

V. R. Patel, B. P. Mehta, D. H. Tandel and R. C. Patel
DOI Number :      Page number :36-39
Keyword:

Eight different fungicides were tested as a seed dressers against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in pot condition. Among all the fungicides, significantly superior germination was obtained when seeds were treated with Thiram (90.0 %) followed by Captan (85.0%), Aureofungin (85.0%), Captafol (82.0%), Tricyclazole (81.0%) and Carbendazim (80.0%). The lower pre emergence mortality was recorded in Thiram (10.0%) followed by Captan and Aureofungin (15.0%) while highest pre emergence seedling mortality was recorded with Mancozeb and MEMC (24.0%). Lowest total seedling mortality (13.0%) was observed with Thiram followed by Captan, Carbandezim which was at par with Aureofungin, Trycyclozole and Captafol while highest seedling mortality (32.0%) was recorded in Mencozeb.

Determination and Characterization of Potency of Anti-bacteria Activities of Chromolaena Odorata (Siam- Weed) in Oforola, Owerri-West Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria.

A. O. Udonsi, E. A. Ubuoh and O. L. Ikwa
DOI Number :      Page number :40-48
Keyword:

Chromolaena Odorata is a species from the family of Asteraceae. It is used traditionally by the tribal people as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. The anti-bacterial activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant was tested against clinical bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using the agar well diffusion method. The susceptibility of the test bacteria varies with the type of solvents used. The result of the anti-bacteria activity revealed that the diameter zones of inhibition against the test bacteria and CPX differed (P≤0.05) significantly. The potentiality of the leaf against the test bacteria as evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) indicated the presence of more active compounds in ethanol than in methanol and aqueous extracts. Qualitative phyto-chemical analysis of the extracts reveals the presence of bioactive components. This, the result of this study justified the fickloric usage of the plant and suggests that leaf part of chromolaena Odorata could be pharmaceutically exploited.

Influence of Physical and Chemical Factors on the Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Azotobacter Vinelandii IMV B-7076

Anton Ocheretyanko, Alla Roy, Iryna Skorochod and Ivan Kurdish
DOI Number :      Page number :49-55
Keyword:

The aim of the research was to study the accumulation of phenolic compounds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strain Azotobacter vinelandii IMV B-7076, depending on culture conditions. We used conventional microbiological, biochemical, physical, chemical and statistical research methods. The accumulation of phenolic compounds bacteria A. vinelandii IMV B-7076 depends on the duration of cultivation, type and concentration of the carbon and energy source in the medium. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds (223.0 μg/mL) was determined by culturing these bacteria in a medium containing 30 g/L of glucose. At cultivation of this strain Azotobacter in media containing sucrose or mannitol, the content of phenolic compounds decreased. Changing the concentration of MgSO4.7Н2О in the medium within the 0.05-1.0 g/L had negligible effect on the accumulation of phenols by these bacteria.

Post-Harvest Loss Reduction as a Tool for Food Security

S. Agoda, G. C. Ihionu, S. A. Atanda and A. Osegbo
DOI Number :      Page number :56-67
Keyword:

This review examines post-harvest loss reduction in the context of its relationship to improved food security. Thirty per cent or more of all food grown worldwide are lost before and after it reaches the consumer (from production to retail phase in the food chain). Pre-harvest and post- harvest losses occur mainly due to meagre infrastructure, scarce resources, lack of managerial skill, inadequate storage facilities, poor packaging system and insufficient investment in biosecurity practices, poor and uncoordinated transport networks and corruption. Post-harvest loss prevention would reduce such waste and could help moderate the amount of increase in food production that is needed to meet growing food demand as solution to worsening state of food insecurity. A voluntary platform for retailers to report food waste statistics and a less over-conservative system of setting use-by dates would aid in combating waste. An increasing world population coupled with progressively scarce resources make post-harvest loss prevention in food losses a key component in any strategy for sustainable food security.

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Vernonia Amygdalina

A. Abdulhamid, I. M. Fakai, I. Sani, F. Bello and A. A. Hassana
DOI Number :      Page number :68-72
Keyword:

The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of some phytochemical components and to test for the antibacterial activity of the aqueous leaves and stem bark extracts of Vernonia amygdalina in order to establish the scientific bases for the use of the plant in traditional medicinal practices. The phytochemicals were analyzed using the standard methods of phytochemical analysis, while the antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aurius, Shigella dysentriae and Streptococcus pyogenes were analysed using agar well diffusion method. In the aqueous leaves extract, the results indicated the presence of flavonoids and phenols, whereas saponins, tannins and alkaloids were not detected. In the aqueous stem bark extract, phenols and saponins were detected, while tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids were not detected. The results revealed that the two extracts possess wider antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms at different concentrations. Therefore, both the aqueous leaves and stem bark extracts of Vernonia amygdalina may provide a target for drug discovery.

Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Seeds of Trigonella Foenum Graceum

Prof. Dr. Mathew George, Prof .Dr. Lincy Joseph and Naina Sara Sabu
DOI Number :      Page number :73-76
Keyword:

Trigonella foenum graceum Linn. Leguminosae, a seed spice used to enhance flavor, color and texture of food, and for medicinal purposes in many traditional systems. A number of epidemiological studies and laboratory research have revealed the biological actions of fenugreek. This study was carried out to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of ace tonic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graceum. The anticonvulsant activity of Trigonella foenum graceum was investigated using electroconvulsiometer induced seizure in rats. The information available in the literature on the health benefits and pharmaceutical effects of Trigonella accounts for its known medicinal properties and accounts new therapeutic effects. The anticonvulsant effect of T. foenum graceum significantly delayed the onset of seizures when compared with control group   Diazepam is used as the standard drug. The data obtained suggests that the acetonic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graceum posses’ anticonvulsant activity may involve an interaction with GABAergic system to exert its effect.

Technical Efficiency of Rice Farmers in Ilesa Agricultural Zone of Osun State, Nigeria.

Ezekiel, Ayinde Alani
DOI Number :      Page number :77-82
Keyword:

This study examined the technical efficiency of rice farmers in llesa Agricultural zone of Osun State. Sixty (80) farmers were randomly selected in the area. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. The primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentage and stochastic frontier model to measure the technical efficiency and its determinants. The stochastic production frontier result showed all the parameter estimates of the mean least estimates are statistically significant at 1% with the exception of transportation and fertilizer. The estimated technical efficiency of sampled respondents range from 0.40 to 1.00 with a mean of 0.83. This implies that on the average, rice production in the study area is about 83% of the potential frontier production level given present state of technology and input. This indicated that there is room for improvement in rice production in the study area.

Effect of Weather Variability on Cocoa Production in Atakomosa West Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria

A. A. Ezekiel and A. S. Toromade
DOI Number :      Page number :83-88
Keyword:

The study was carried out to examine the effects of weather variability on cocoa production in Atakumosa West Local Government area of Osun State and realistically see to the characteristics of the respondents and to ascertain the extents to which farmers are knowledgeable about the effect of weather variability of cocoa production to determine the factors that affects its production. 80 respondents were selected with the use random sampling procedure and data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedule. The results of the analysis showed that 83.75% of the respondents were male, 95% are married, 72.5% engaged in farming as primary occupation, 60% inherited the land, 67.5% are Christians and 62.5% practiced both food crops and tree crops farming. The regression analysis showed that there is a positive relationship between rainfall (0.51) and the output of cocoa, sunshine affects the output of cocoa positively (1.82). The other crops planted affect the output of cocoa by (0.51) which is positive, however the results suggests to minimize the effect of weather variability risks and hazards, government should also ensure that the different research institutes are making efforts to improve cocoa production by introducing high breeds of cocoa that can adapt to weather variability in the study area to increase productivity.

The Role of Metals in Biochemical System: An overview

Aliyu Ahmad Warra
DOI Number :      Page number :89-95
Keyword:

Knowing the chemistry and biochemistry of metals allows their visualization in biochemical and biological setting.  Some Metals are absorbed by human body and plants in many ways by organs and   tissues. The blood is a rich source of sodium ions and chloride ions, the cytosol is filled with potassium ions, bone is structured around calcium and phosphorous, red blood cells are rich in iron, and the nucleus is filled with zinc-bound proteins.  This shows a complexity of relationship of metals especially metal ions in living system.  Then   the only answer to what determines order, specificity or function of these metals is the biochemical form.  It is form that determines function because no two dissimilar metals or metal ions can exist in the same biochemical form. In this mini review an attempt was made to concisely overview the role of these metals in biochemical system.

A contribution to Biometric Analysis and Length- weight relationship of Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus, 1758) obtained off Port Said (Egyptian Mediterranean waters)

Samir Ibrahim Rizkalla and El Sayed Haroun Khamis Akel
DOI Number :      Page number :96-107
Keyword:

Platycephalus indicus is an immigrant Red Sea species to the Mediterranean Sea. It is rare in the area of investigation and only four specimens were collected in the catch of a bottom trawler operated off Port Said (Egyptian Mediterranean waters) at 10 meters depth. Ratio indices of twenty seven morphometric characters and five meristic counts were recorded. The length- weight relationship was calculated showing positive allometric growth (>3).

Antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of bioactive compounds from Cotula coronopifolia (L.)

L. Kaouthar, H. Edziri, A. bouzidi, M. M. Ali, M. Aouni, M. Mastouri and M. Zine
DOI Number :      Page number :108-114
Keyword:

A natural substance: 6-methoxy-1-benzofuran-4-ol (1) and Stigmast-22-ène-3-ol (2) have been isolated from the aerial part extracts of the plant Cotula coronopifolia by chromatographic separation. Their structures have been deduced essentially by one and two NMR spectroscopic procedures and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the natural products were investigated. Antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-Azinobis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method; the TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) values were calculated.  The cytotoxic activity was tested against HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay; the cytotoxicity index (CI%) was calculated to evaluate this test. Important antioxidant activities were recorded for compounds (1) and (2), with a value of (TEAC) of 1.84 and 2.39 mM trolox/mg sample respectively. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 14.17 μg/mL, whereas this was 45.72 μg/mL for compound 2.