Research Papers of ARJBM

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Volume : 3 | Issue : 3

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Modelling International Trade Flows: The Case of Macedonia

Narela Spaseski
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Due natural openness, larger economies tend to participate much more in the global economy especially through trade. Here we implement the Gravity model in analysing the predictors of Macedonian export and import with the main trading partners (Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia and Turkey).The study revealed that the developed version of gravity model where the impact of determinates is taken simultaneously on export and import, successfully explains Macedonian trade flows. In addition, the model for imports fits the data better than for exports; the errors are small. Our results suggest that between 2000 and 2013 Macedonian main trading partners are more distant countries, as Germany and Italy. Consequently, the relationship with other countries of the former Yugoslavia is weakening. This is as a result of the liberalized trade with the European Union (EU) by an autonomous trade concession in 2000. Other interesting finding is the negative effect of Macedonian GDP on export but positive effect on imports. This is due the fact that when GDP increases, so does consumption. Here exports became a second-base solution. To conclude, EU countries benefits to a larger extend from the liberalized trade than Macedonia. Therefore as a major decision that Macedonia should adopt is expanding on foreign markets by joining business with the countries of former Yugoslavia, known as International Joint Venture (IJV). Thought the IJV, countries are given opportunities to share scientist, produce new goods, accelerate the industrialization of the country and increase their export.

A Comparative Analysis of Economic Growth of BRICS Countries

Savita Shastri
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In this present day competitive global business environment, it is imperative to adopt the strategy of Integration and Collaboration. Regional Trading Arrangements have gained momentum post world war as the countries have realized the value of economic and trade cooperation. BRICS is an association of five major emerging economies Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. BRICS countries represent 42% of the entire world population and have a combined nominal Gross Domestic Product of US$16.039 trillion, which is equivalent to approximately 20% of the Gross World Product. The idea behind formation of BRICS is to stimulate bilateral relations among BRICS nations on the basis of non-interference, equality, and mutual benefit. BRICS aims at creating a Win- Win situation for all member countries which are rapidly developing economies and have been playing an important role on the global economy. They are developing countries with relevant global economic performance and high potential and with systemic importance for the world economy. In this respect, their national performances have profound implications both regionally and globally. This paper aims at studying the individual performances of BRICS countries from Socioeconomic perspective and also presents a comparative analysis of member countries since the formation of BRICS in 2010. The study relies on secondary sources of information and is carried out with an objective of understanding the effectiveness and influence of BRICS on the economic growth of its member countries over the years.

Tourism Development - Marketing Strategies and Challenges in India

Dr. S. Vijayulu Reddy, Dr. B. Sakunthala, Dr. M.Sriramulu
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Technology and the Internet have created a revolution in tourism marketing. The Internet not only inspires and provides consumers with information on potential travel destinations, but enables them to take immediate action by booking online. With global international tourist arrivals reaching one billion each year, and growth only expected to increase, opportunities in the tourism industry are endless. Today’s traveler can virtually tour destinations at the touch of a finger, communicate with distant islands on their way to the office and plan customized adventures through simple online platforms. Without the correct combination of tourism marketing strategies, tools, and technology, travel business will not able to find potential clients. The basis of any successful marketing strategy is an inspiring brand that speaks to the specific key drivers of the target market. With all of the diversity of niche and source markets, knowing and understanding who to target and how to target them is vital to success. Tourism brands, whether related to a single business or entire destinations, communicate an important message to potential visitors. Tourism branding process uses market and competitive analysis, image audits and the development of key messaging to create a powerful sense of place. With today’s consumers researching and planning more and more of their travel online, having an engaging, well-designed website is crucial for any travel company’s survival. To succeed online, a website must implement the necessary strategies to be found by potential clients. Marketing of tourism is facing stiff competition and many e-commerce portals offer different discount rates and concessions to attract travelers.

Maria da Conceição da Costa Marques
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The relationship of e-commerce with public sector is in strong growth and one of the latest investments is the e-government. In this paper we intend to address the use of information and communication technologies in the Portuguese Public Administration and how citizens can benefit from this. According to the e-Government Benchmark 2010 report released by the European Commission, Portugal is in first place in the European ranking the availability and sophistication of online public services. In the edition held in October 2004, Portugal presented itself in the 16th position in the availability and the 14th in the level of sophistication. Over the past six years Portugal has moved from a position below the European average, for leadership in online public services, assuming it is in Europe as a reference in Electronic Government.

Financing of Agricultural SMEs in Rural Bangladesh

Tarun Kanti Bose, Newton Gain and Jannatul Ferdous Bristy
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The goal of this study was to identify agricultural SME financing system of rural Bangladesh. For that purpose the Batiaghata region of Khulna District of Bangladesh has been selected and a total of 200 agricultural SME owners are interviewed. The result of the study shows that  variables like agricultural loans, govt. subsidized loan, foreign aided, selffinancing, money lenders, NGO assistance, private bank loan, state owned banks, foreign supervising and assistance, specialized bank loan are positively correlated with agricultural SME farming and operation. The outcome of the study also reveals that the agricultural SME owners considers agricultural loan and self-financing and NGO as their two most frequent and helpful sources for financing. Whereas they seldom get any kind of assistances from other sources like Govt. Loan, Foreign aid, Money lenders, Private bank, Sate owned bank, foreign loan and Specialized Bank loan. This outcome puts string emphasize on improving the agricultural SME financing system in rural Bangladesh through those sectors which are not significantly contributing and thus not helping the operation and development of the agricultural sector.

Researches on the Customers Satisfaction in an Authorized Auto Service

Filip ILIE
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Marketing research is a tool used for risks management and decision making to help a company to grow. Defining and setting goals is the first step in performing of a successful marketing research and is depends on the nature of the problem studied, the financial resources, the working tools used, the quality of the results that are expected to is obtain. For a car company, the main objective is to achieve customer satisfaction maximum for product bought, through the network of sales and service stations. For the authorized car dealer and service stations, the main objectives are: using of the methods to transmit customers the best image of firm products, guaranteeing their expectations and to win their loyalty; information about company strategy on the communication with customers to ensure increased attention and assessing the degree of contentment. Taking care of customers and of their degree of contentment is useful for company to know directly through service stations or through authorized dealers, that are customer expectations, what they think about the company, what they lack etc. The aim of this paper is the marketing research on satisfaction and expectations customers of a car company, setting the degree customers contentment of the service stations authorized.t

Impact of Television Advertisement on Children Food Products

Dr.M.Krishnaveni, Dr. Rupadevi
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In recent years the television advertising plays major market force .So this as a result children are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing efforts. So this is a study to evaluate the Impact of television advertising on children food product. The study conducted in this work address consumer socialization of schoolers by focusing on their parents means to mediate both children’s television advertising exposure and children’s purchase requests, and possible parent - child conflict induced by television advertising. So parents and teachers should increases the will power and self-esteem in children.

Degree of Transaction Costs Control for Competitive Bidding to Infrastructure Contract: An Empirical Analysis

Riadh Harizi and Maissa Jelassi
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This paper contributes by offering an attempt to measure the winner bidder’s control degree to the economic costs of transaction that result from bidding incomplete contract use “unit-price-constant” where contract is made to public procurement. Unlike most previous studies of procurement, we show that work do not proceeds at a constant pace over the length of the project. In addition, information asymmetry and lack of experience represents an important determinant when bidder anticipates his production costs and his transaction costs into his bid. We propose a structural empirical models and a multiple form regression to analyze the transaction costs function of bid. The results provide evidence that transaction sub-costs of different stage of work progress explain the majority of the total transaction costs estimated on the project. Our results suggest that transaction costs are also influenced by positive and negative adjustments, the asymmetric information and the lack of experience of bidder.

Trends and Opportunities for Social Entrepreneurs around the Globe

Shahzad Ghafoor*, Hafsa Shaukat
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In this paper we analysis the literature of entrepreneur operating is different sector of the economy by the entrepreneurship and skill sets. We have a question how it is similar and different from business sector and entrepreneurship [1]. Social entrepreneurship plays an important role in awaking the communities and societies about their social problems. The entrepreneurs create social wealth for them and use it for the welfare of the needy people. This paper will narrate what are the factors on acting which we can good and successful entrepreneur and as well as social entrepreneur. What are the trends and opportunities round the globe and what is the potential which is being catered by which states and economies. The entrepreneurial activities are tool that strengthen the economies.

A Study of Labour Welfare Measures in Kesoram Cement Factory, Basantnagar

Thuppari Shanti Priya and Mruthyunjaya Rao Puli
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Industrial progress depends on satisfied labour force and in this connection the importance of labour welfare measures was accepted long back. Way back in 1931 the Royal Commission on Labour stressed the need of labour welfare primarily because of the harsh treatment meted out to the workers. This need was further emphasized in independent India ,which lays down the following articles in this regard: “Article 42: The state shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work……”and “Article 43: The state shall endeavor to secure by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way, to all workers agricultural, industrial or otherwise, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities…..” by the Constitution, (1950) . This study discussed about the labour welfare measures and100 respondents selected randomly from Kesoram cement factory, Basantnagar, Karimnagar (District). The necessary data are collected by administering a pre-designed questionnaire during October-November 2015. The data were processed and analyzed with the help of statistical tools like simple percentages, frequency distributions, etc.

A Study on the Impact of the Fundamental and Technical Analysis on the Decision of the Investors

Shalu Kotwani
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Investment decision is a very critical decision to take for investors. A great variety of information sources are available in market which are referred by investors before investing. They are market data, stock charts, industry’s and company’s performance etc. These sources increase the confidence of investor and add clarity and perspective to the investment-making process. Now-a-days, various analyses are present in market which helps to organize the information; these analyses are fundamental and technical analysis. This research focuses on the meaning of the fundamental and technical analysis, investors’ perception towards them and how these analyses affect the investors’ decision. To extend the same, this study reviews the literature on the meaningful related concepts of the capital market, preferences and various investment strategies adopted by the Indian investors. This survey is done using z-test on 160 stock market investors based in Indore, Ujjain, Dewas and Bhopal during 2013-2014. The study the rationality of the investors during different market variations and the impact of various demographic variables like gender, age, and occupation on the investment decision is also considered.

Women Enterpreneur’s Opinion about Women’s Potential Ability and Expectations in Sangli District

Anjali Upadhye, Anant Gore, Ashwini Patil
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This study examines the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in Sangli district at various levels like socioeconomic, personal, social, financial, environmental, expectations, governmental in their journey as entrepreneur, further the study also tries to probe in to the factors of women’s potential ability motivating these women to become entrepreneur and suggests a framework for the expectations of women entrepreneurship. Women entrepreneurs face lots of problems at start-up as well as operating stage, multiple role conflict, time management, lack of appreciation, lack of finance, maintaining work life balance, discriminating treatment, understanding government rules and regulations etc. still overcoming all the personal, social constraints they lead up. Further, it is noted that these women entrepreneurs are both “willing” as well as “forced” entrepreneurs. For some of them factors motivating to start their own enterprise is to support family financially, while for some of them it is the urge to be economically independent, gain the control of life, self-identity, respects, to respects for her talents and skills. All of them become successful with support from their families. Appropriate support and encouragement from the Society in general and family members in particular is required to help these women scale new heights in their business

Ventures.

Banking in the Early Years of Independent India - 1947 To 1967

Dr. Najmi Shabbir
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This paper mainly analyses the role of Banking Sector after independence in economic development, prosperity and stability. Banks, through their spread and mobilization of deposits, promote the banking habits and savings in the economy and this provide resources for investment and development. The exercise of nationalisation of the Imperial Bank was first implemented by the Government of India with the objective of “extension of banking facilities on a large scale, more particularly in the rural and semi-urban areas, and for other public purposes”. With the setting up of the State Bank of India, a large number of branches were opened in unbanked centres. This period also witnessed several other controls such as credit authorisation scheme and selective credit controls to ensure that credit was not concentrated in the hands of a few and that it was well disbursed.

The Impact of Employees Training Program on SME’s performance

Hafsa Shaukat and Shahzad Ghafoor
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The trend towards global market orientation and trade liberalization requires the SMEs in Pakistan to increasingly emphasize on compressed product life-cycles, enhancing quality improvements, and towards product and process innovations. Employees’ training is one of the factors that have the effect on SMEs’ performance. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the impact of SMEs’ training programme on SMEs’ performance. For SMEs’ performance, the study evaluated the respondents’ perception about their companies’ productivity, company expansion, competitive advantage, return on sales and sales growth. We found that training is an integral part of SME’s either formal or informal both will affect the performance of the employees in both short run and long run. The results and data are discussed in depth within this report.

A Review of Relationship between Job Contents and Job-Stress of Manufacturing Workers

Rizwana Rafiq, Dr. Parvez Ahmad Shah
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Due to the impact of globalization the influence of Stress in this era of high technological speed, global competition and consumerism is found to be rapidly increasing and stress is also found to be affecting the productivity and functioning of the organizations. The stress free work environment is very important for the competitive advantage of organizations. And one of the important models in the area of psycho-social occupational stress is the Job Demands-Control-Support Model popularly known as (JDCS) model. The researcher investigated that, dimensions of the (JDCS) model is the combination of various sub-dimensions i.e. Skill Discretion, Job Authority, Job Demand, Supervisory Support and Co-workers Support and this model’s central hypothesis is that job stress increases as job demand increases and the level of stress decreases as the job control and social support increases or vice-versa. Thus stress will conceivably have more damaging effects on health in jobs with high demands, low control and low social support. So, this paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the use of (JDCS) model and considering all the sub-dimensions of this model separately to measure the job stress and their individual impacts over the manufacturing sector workers, besides ascertaining the future trends in the area of job stress

Market Anomalies in the Indian Stock Market: A Study of the Calendar Effect in the Bombay Stock Exchange

Dr. Shveta Singh and Mr. Himanshu Govil
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This paper analyses the presence of the calendar anomalies, namely, the ‘day-of-theweek’ effect, the ‘weekend’ effect, the ‘month-of-the-year’ effect and the ‘April’ effect in the Indian stock market over the period of 10 years (2004-2014) based on abnormal returns. The sample constitutes of the companies of the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) BSE 100 index of the Bombay stock exchange (BSE). The focus of the study is to empirically determine the existence of the calendar anomalies and their effects on the returns of the index. The study reports both the descriptive and inferential statistics pertaining to the data. The descriptive statistics like mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis of each group are reported. Also, after establishing whether the returns’ distribution was normal or not, inferential statistics like F-test, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis test were used to determine the significance of difference of mean of returns within and in-between groups. The findings suggests some of the possible reasons like tax-loss selling hypothesis, portfolio balancing, information flow hypothesis and retail investor trading hypothesis towards the existence of these anomalies. The analysis reveal that the returns on different days of the week and different months of the year were not statistically different hence indicating the nonexistence of any calendar anomaly in the BSE 100 index, over the period of the study. The findings are in congruence with those of some recent studies of calendar anomalies in the Indian stock markets.

Audit Committee Effectiveness, Government Linked Companies and Transformation Program: The Case for Financial Reporting Quality in Malaysia’s setting

Nurul Nazlia Jamil
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This paper investigates the audit committee effectiveness in Government Linked Companies (GLCs) on the quality of financial reporting subsequent to GLCs transformation program. A sample of 282 GLCs was acquired to examine the some firms’ characteristics with financial reporting. Results show that due to the post transformation program, there is higher number of audit committee independence which indirectly helps to reduce the level of discretionary accruals in GLCs. The GLCs transformation program provide evidence to the regulators as well as other stakeholders in evaluating the existing approach in monitoring and controlling GLCs for better improvement in formulating government policy. The study provides empirical evidence on the issue of financial reporting quality in GLCs and how the implementation of GLCs transformation program is able to have a significant impact on financial reporting in GLCs in Malaysia’s setting

A Study on Existing Structure of Commerce Education With Reference to Universities in Maharashtra

Dr. Prashant Kulkarni, Dr.Anjali Upadhye
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High philosophies apart, the full education for an individual must be both for 'making a living' and for 'making a life'. Commerce or Business Education is to be looked upon as just one phase of education, not inferior or superior to any other phase or branch. The explosion of 'information' in science and technology has influenced every area of life, including business and commerce. The increasing complexity of business and commerce organisations in the present day world would make it obligatory for students to be conversant with modern principles and practices of commerce, management and accounting. Gone are the days when one could depend on the 'Munims' and their 'Bahi Khatas'. The use of computers and the management techniques of the behavioural sciences have completely revolutionised the running of modern business and commercial enterprises. It, therefore, has become very necessary to pay adequate attention to Business / Commerce Education. The research study is expected to throw bright light on this target and suggest some modifications, in the existing syllabus and educational pattern. It is also expected that this research study may introduce some new items, processes and practical projects enriching the theoretical approach.