Current Research Papers of ACTAVELIT - Volume : 3 and Issue : 3

Studies on Synthesis of Aromatic Schiff Bases: Part-II. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Ketimines from Benzophenone with Substituted-anilines

C. J. Patil, Manisha C. Patil and Mrunmayee C. Patil

Ketimine were prepared from Benzophenone and Aniline, o-, m- and p-Nitroanilines using toluene as solvent by reflux method using Dean and Stark, conventional method. The compounds formed were confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral information. Also their biological activity was studied and the results were compared with standard drug, Fluconazole.

Efficacy of Panchkarma treatment in Psoriasis – A Case Study

Dr. Anup Jain, Dr. Sanjeev Kaushik , Dr Himanshu Sharma, and Dr. Ashok Kumar

A 23 year old female patient with severe scaling spread on various parts of the body and diagnosed as a case of psoriasis was treated with Panchkarma therapies and internal ayurvedic medicine. Patient presented with severe scaling associated with itching and reddish discoloration on various parts of the body, more so on the palms and feet. Management was done with various internal medications, shaman sneha and in end with Virechana over a period of three months. Ayurveda explains this disease as Kitibha kushtha. Shamana Sneha and internal medicine formed the first line of treatment to pacify the vitiated dosha’s while Virechana helped in purification of the body and reducing the disease to a significant effect.

Management of quadriplegia induced by spinal cord injury with combination of panchakarma and oral medications – a case study

Dr. Saurabh Purwar and Dr. Himanshu Sharma

A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These changes translate into loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the lesion. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be classified as complete injury, a total loss of sensation and muscle function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord. A 43 year old male patient with quadriplegia induced by spinal cord injury was treated with Ayurvedic medicine and Panchkarma therapies. Patient presented with quadriplegia and inability to sit/stand/walk and having no bladder control. Patient had history of road accident causing post disc heriation at C4-C5 spine in 2015. Ayurveda explains this disease as Vatavyadhi. Snehana and Svedana formed the first line of treatment to pacify the vitiated Vata while Shalishashtikapindasveda worked as Balya for Mansa and Asthi dhatu and also Anulomana. Shirodhara improves motor and sensory system resulting in improved function of all limbs. Management was done with repeated admissions for Panchakarma therapy during which substantial clinical improvement was reported after 2 months of the Ayurvedic treatment in existing neurological deficits and in quality of life.

Relationship of serum uric acid level to maternal and perinatal outcome in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Mahendra R. Pakhale and Dr. Atul Padamawar

 To Study Serum Uric Acid level elevation in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and its role on maternal and perinatal outcome.  The Study was performed on two groups of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; the first group (n=50) with a serum uric acid level of ≥6mg/dl was compared to the second group (n=50) with a serum uric acid level of <6mg/dl. Maternal and perinatal complications like eclampsia, HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets) syndrome, ARF (Acute Renal Failure), IUFD(Intra-Uterine Fetal Death), low Apgar score, IUGR(Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation) were studied. A comparison between the two groups revealed that hyperuricemia in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is a strong risk factor for several maternal and perinatal complications with an increased risk of an Apgar score <7 by 6.0 fold, IUFD by 20 fold, IUGR by 4.0 fold, eclampsia by 4.2 fold and cesarean section by 3.4 fold in patients with a uric acid level ≥6mg/dl as compared to those with a level of <6mg/dl.  Hyperuricemia in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is a strong risk factor for several maternal and perinatal complications

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Methanol Extracts from Alstonia boonei and Eclipta prostrata

KENGNE Fankam Carinne, GONSU Kamga Hortense, SOH Oumbe Valère Aime, TEKWU Emmanuel Mouafo TANKEU Francine, BIAPA Nya Prospere, PIEME Constant Anatole, PENLAP Beng Veronique

The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the methanol extracts from Alstonia boonei (bark) and Eclipta prostrata (leaves) towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed tannin, steroid and terpen, alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the well diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of reference strains such as Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 15048) and 07clinical bacteria isolates: Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiellasp, Acinetobacter sp, Shigella sp and Salmonella choleresu usually responsible for several diseases which, in severe cases, can lead to the dead of patients.The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was also determined by the scavenging effect on DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP, Hydroxyl radicals and ABTS methods using ascorbic acid, catechin or quercetin as standards respectively. IC50 values were also calculated.The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal concentrations (MBC) obtained were respectively upper than 6,25 and  25 mg/ml. Both extracts were only active on S. aureus and Eclipta prostrata leaves extract was the most active with MBC/MIC less than 4. Eclipta prostrata leaves more concentrated in polyphenols such as flavonol and flavonoids showed better DPPH scavenging effect than Alstonia boonei bark. Alstonia boonei bark showed a good OH radical scavenging activity compared to Eclipta prostrata leaves.The results indicate that the methanol extract of Alstonia boonei bark and Eclipta prostrata leaves possess a good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which justifies their use in traditional medicine for treating respiratory diseases. Furthermore, their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluation has also provided interesting results. Alstonia boonei bark and Eclipta prostrata leaves may therefore be a good source of antioxidants. 

Non-Conventional Beneficiation of Hydrated Iron Oxide Ores

M.R. Patil, B.P. Ravi, S.J.G. Krishna, P. Reddy, C. Rudrappa and P.S. Kumar

An earthy hydrated iron oxide brownish black coloured lumpy sample was collected for process evolution studies for metallurgical industry assaying minimum 62%Fe. The sample assayed 57.65% Fe (T), 4.40% SiO2, 2.69% Al2O3, and 10.81% LOI containing mainly H2O.  The sample contained mainly goethite with subordinate amount of ferruginous clay.  It contained minor amount of hematite with trace amounts of quartz, gibbsite and magnetite. The sample is not amenable to particle size refining, gravity and magnetic separation, hence as desired +62% Fe grade concentrate could not be produced, due to hydrous nature of iron ore mineral.  The process of calcinations at -10mm size, water quenching followed by  wet screening process at 3 and 0.2mm yielded: (a) An hard chips iron concentrate (-10 +3 mm)  assaying   63.00% Fe, 3.84% SiO2, 2.26% Al2O3,  3.98% LOI and  78% Tumbler Index with 35% Fe distribution,   at wt.% yield of 33.0   for use in sponge iron industry.(b) A sandy concentrate (-3 +0.2 mm) assaying 64.12% Fe, 3.34% SiO2, 2.06% Al2O3, 3.86% LOI  with 54.5% Fe recovery at 50.0 wt. % yield meeting the sinter industry specifications. (c) The slimes assaying 62.50 %Fe 4.04% SiO2, 2.56% Al2O3, and 4.08% LOI may be used in pellet industry as it is. Alternatively, further processing of slimes using WHIMS could yield a DR grade concentrate assaying 67.14% Fe, 1.56% SiO2, 1.16% Al2O3, 1.40%LOI with 8% Fe distribution at wt. % yield of 7 for use in DR pellet industry, while slimy non magnetic tails assaying 50% Fe may be used in cement industry.  The evolved process offers scope for using the hydrated iron oxide ores in metallurgical and cement industry with nil discharge.

Antimicrobial activities of stem bark extracts from jatropha curcas against selected pathogenic clinical isolates

P.E. Ghamba, L.J Goje, B. Alhaji, Y. Usman, A. Halidu , B.A. Haruna, I.A. Samaila

The study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial activities of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas against selected pathogenic clinical isolates; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Candida albicans at a concentration of 100 mg /ml.  Randomized comparative study design was employed in this research. The antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jatropha curcas were studied comparatively by allowing the microorganism to be exposed to the source of exposure (the extracts). The outcome (effect) was determined by the inhibition zones produced by the extracts. Agar well diffusion technique was employed to determine the inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts against the tested pathogens. The results showed that aqueous stem bark extracts exhibited significant (P=0.05) activities against the tested clinical pathogens with inhibition zone ranging from 10.9 to 12.5 mm. The ethanolic extracts showed moderate activities against the tested isolates with the inhibition zone from 9.0 to 11.2mm respectively. The MIC of the aqueous stem extracted is between 12.5 and 50 mg/ml, while the ethanolic extracted ranged between 12.5 and 25 mg/ml. The results also revealed that the aqueous and ethanol extracted showed appreciable inhibitory activities against all the clinical pathogens. The phytochemical screening results revealed that the extracts contained flavonoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, volatile oil, steroids and terpenoids. The results of this study suggested that Jatropha curcas stem bark extracts have antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogens and hence may possess important properties for drug development for the treatment of ailments caused by these pathogens; these might be due to the presence of the phytochemical compounds in the plant extracts.