Current Research Papers of AJBPR - Volume : 8 and Issue : 4

Phytochemical screening and anticancer activity of methanlic leaf extract of eucalyptus globulus labill

D. Kayal vizhi, K. Irulandi, V. Siva, P. Mehalingam and N. Nirmalkumar
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/0106    Page number :1-6
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To study the phytochemical screening and anticancer activity of methanolic extract from Eucalyptus globulus leaves of medicinal plants. The different types of phytochemical analysis tested by using standard procedure and anticancer activity of methanolic extract using on Hela cancer cell line evaluated by MTT assay. In the present investigation, the preliminary phytochemical analysis of these plants confirm the occurrence of diverse range of phytochemicals like flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, catechins and steroids. The occurrence of result revealed Eucalyptus globulus found significant cell inhibiting activity against HeLa cancer cell line and IC50 value was 43.6423µg/ml.

Effect of Lead on Seed Germination and Biochemical Changes of Black Gram (Vigna mungo)

Parna Das Sarma, Sanchita Bhattacharjee, Sauryya Bhattacharyya
DOI Number :    10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/0719    Page number :7-19
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Lead (Pb), unlike some other heavy metals, is not essential for higher plants and other organisms. Even at moderate concentrations, lead is highly toxic to man, animals and plants that is why it is considered a dangerous pollutant. In order to quantitatively decipher the effect of the concentrations of lead on the germination and growth of seedling of black gram (Vigna mungo), seed germination parameters were observed using fresh seeds treated with various concentrations of lead nitrate. The study was planned to delve into understanding the possible toxicity effects on seeds upon exposure to lead pollution. Seeds of this plant were exposed to four different concentrations of the metal (e.g.  0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1%, w/v). From the results of germination experiments, a decrease in the seed germination parameters with concomitant increase in the heavy metal concentration was observed, and the inhibitions of seedling growth were clearly noticeable above certain acute concentrations (e.g. 1% of lead ion concentration). The results of the study revealed that lead unfavorably influenced the growth parameters as well as biochemical elements of seedling on increasing the metal ion concentration.

Bioremediation of Agricultural runoff and Domestic sewage by Anoxygenic Photosynthetic bacteria isolated from Boiled rice effluents and Krishna Water

Vasavi Dathar, Afrojahan and Ramchander Merugu
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/2035    Page number :20-35
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The anoxygenic photosynthetic purple non sulphur bacteria are versatile in their habitats and were reported to degrade and remove toxic chemicals in polluted waters. In the present study, 5 photosynthetic purple non sulphur bacteria were isolated from fresh water, Rice fields and Effluents of boiled rice industry from different places of Mahabubnagar and surrounding areas. The isolates were named as KSL-1, KSG-1, BKL-2, KRM-3 and BKG-2 based on the type of the sample, place of isolation and the carbon source utilized. Out of these, KSL-1, KSG-1 and BKL-2 independently, and a mixture of these 3 isolates were used for bioremediation of Agricultural runoff and Domestic sewage. Physical parameters like temperature and pH of the wastes were recorded which varied from 290C - 390C and 6.0 - 8.0 respectively in untreated and treated samples. Chemical parameters like BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, chlorides and sulphates were estimated in untreated samples and samples incubated with the bacteria for 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of incubation. Treatment of Agricultural runoff with these bacteria resulted in overall reduction of BOD 27.4 – 33.5%, COD 13.13 – 46.92%, TDS 16.67 - 50%, TSS 12.5 - 75%, chlorides 16.43 – 46.61% and sulphates 5.47 – 11.64% by 9th day of incubation. Similarly, treatment of Domestic sewage with these bacteria resulted in reduction of BOD 21.1 - 60.2%, COD 16.69 – 63.89%, TDS 33.33 - 48.33%, TSS 47.4 – 80.25%, chlorides 19.34 – 39.62% and sulphates 2.93 – 17.11%. A combination of the three cultures was more effective in reducing the concentration of wastes.

Simple Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals by using Chloramine-T and Safranin-O Dye Couple

Gopi Mamidi and GanduVenkateshwarlu
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/3640    Page number :36 - 40
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Simple, sensitive and selective methods are developed for the indirect and oxidative spectrophotometric determination of drugs, viz., Phenylephrine Hydrochloride, Ramipril Hydrochloride, Sumatriptan Succinate, Tramadol hydrochloride and Trimetazidine is based on their reactivity towards Chloramine-T (ChL-T). The method is based on the oxidation of drugs by ChL-T (Excess quantity) and estimating the amount of un-reacted ChL-T by Safranin-O dye at λmax 524 nm. The concentration reacted Chloramine-T is equal to the Drug concentration in this method. The concentration of Safranin-O and Chloramine-T is 10 µg mL-1.  The calibration curves obeyed Beer’s law over the concentration range of 10-70 µg mL-1 (PHP), 5-35 µg mL-1 (RAM), 5-35 µg mL-1 (SUM), 10-70 µg mL-1 (TRA) & 12-84 µg mL-1 (TMT). This method has been applied for the determination of drugs in their pure form as well as in tablet formulations. The method has been validated in terms of guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization.

Pharmacognostical Standardization of Abies pindrow bark

Hayat M Mukhtar, Rohit Goyal & Hitesh Kumar
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/4149    Page number :41 - 49
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Abies pindrow is a tall evergreen tree with a conical crown, attaining a height up to 75 m and girth of 7 m, found in temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at altitude of 2100-3600 m. Plant is reported to possess several medicinally important chemical constituents viz lactones, chalcones, fatty acid, hydrocarbons etc. Plant is reported to possess medicinal activities like anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic etc. The present study pertains to Pharmacognostical, physiochemical and toxicological investigation of this medicinally important plant was conducted to establish a pharmacognostic standard of the bark of Abies pindrow. The study has been conducted according to guidelines of World Health Organization and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Water, alcohol, chloroform, petroleum ether soluble extractive value was found to be 3.75%w/w, 21.5%w/w, 1.5%w/w, 0.9%w/w respectively by hot method. Total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphate soluble ash was found to be 1.5%w/w, 0.1w/w, 0.6w/w, 0.13w/w respectively. Loss on drying, swelling index, fibre content, foaming index, bitterness value, tannin content was found to be 6.37%w/w, 1cm, 2.3, 0.6ml/mg, 2000, 1.66%w/w respectively . Content of heavy metal and microbial count was found within the acceptable range. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, protein and free amino acids, saponins, sterols, tannins and flavonoids

 

A facile synthesis and docking studies of 3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl) phenyl aryl amide derivatives

Yadaiah S, Ramchander Merugu, Laxminarayana E and Jyothi M
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/5056    Page number :50 - 56
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An improved protocol for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives, starting from ethyl 3-iodobenzoate is reported. In this present communication we report synthesis of 3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)phenyl aryl amide derivatives in good yields. All title compounds were characterized by IR, NMR and Mass spectral analyses

Development and Validation of UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Darifenacin Hydrobromide in Bulk and Formulation

Sachin Bhusari, Mahesh Rindhe, Avinash Chaudhary, Pravin Wakte
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/5764    Page number :57-64
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A simple, precise and cost-effective UV- visible spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Darifenacin hydrobromide in bulk and formulation was developed and validated according to the ICH Q2 (R1) guideline. Spiked Darifenacin hydrobromide solution was scanned over the UV-visible range for its wavelength of maximum absorbance. Various calibration standards of Darifenacin ranging from 10 to 60 µg/ml were prepared. Calibration curve of concentration vs. absorbance was plotted. Various analytical method validation parameters viz. linearity, range, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, and robustness etc. were calculated. The wavelength of maximum absorbance of Darifenacin hydrobromide was found to be 284 nm. The correlation coefficient at a calibration range of 10-60 μg/ml was found to be 0.999. The validation of the developed UV method was carried out by conducting linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation studies.  Developed UV method was found to be precise for the intra-day and inter-day study and shows percent relative standard deviation in the range of 0.83 to 1.43 & 0.3199 to 1.64 respectively. The total percent recovery of Darifenacin hydrobromide was found to be 99.06 to 100.44 %. A simple, precise and cost-effective UV- visible spectrometry method was developed and validated for the estimation of Darifenacin hydrobromide in tablet dosage form. Said validated UV- visible method can be efficiently used for the estimation of Darifenacin hydrobromide in tablet dosage form.

Anti-Diabetic Potential of A Polyherbal Formulation by α-Amylase Inhibitory Assay

Bhupendra Chauhan, Zulphikar Ali, Md. Arif Naseer, Ranjit Singh
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/6569    Page number :65-69
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The plants Syzygium cumini, Azadirachta indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Withania somnifera, Curcuma longa, and Peladium murex are reported to have antidiabetic properties individualy but the synergistic or combined effects are not yet clearly established. A study on Polyherbal formulation showed significant antidiabetic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. The aim of the present study was to develop a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antidiabetic potential by in vitro α amylase assay. The polyherbal formulation was prepared by taking equal proportion of each powdered drug. The results show that polyherbal formulation possesses promising antidiabetic activity as compared to standard drug acarbose. However, detailed molecular level studies and toxicological evaluation are necessary to establish the safety and efficacy in clinical practice.

Biosensors in Biological Analysis of Mycotoxins

Aruna Kasoju & Ramchander Merugu
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/7079    Page number :70-79
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The developments in Science and Technology has led to the evolution of the new disciplines like nanotechnology with better applications in different areas like defence, medicine, environment, agriculture, pharmacy and other industries. Nanotechnology involves manipulation of matter at the atomic level and works with the devices and structures with dimensions sized from 1 to 100nm. Molecular diagnostics has grown rapidly in the last two decades for detection of gene mutations, and for detection of the presence of disease causing agent. Development of novel therapeutics for regulation of gene expression provided abundant opportunities in the area of pharmacogenomics. Analysis of gene sequence and understanding gene regulation are important in developing molecular diagnostics and drug discovery leading to improved patient care. Analysis of specific gene sequence is the commonly used method in diagnostic laboratory for some diseases. In the present communication, various applications and future prospects of biosensors are reviewed.

Seasonal Variations of Physico-Chemical Characteristics in Uppanar Estuary South East Coast of Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

A. Ramesh, D. Kalimuthu, R. Rengarajan and M. Sukumaran
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/8087    Page number :80-87
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Seasonal fluctuations of physico-chemical characteristics were carried out in Uppanar estuary south east coast of Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India, for a period of twelve months (January 2017 to December 2017). Eight various physico-chemical parameters were analyzed by using standard methods (APHA, 1998). Water temperature varied from 27.75 to 29.56°C, pH ranged from 7.79 to 8.29. Turbidity was from 38.87 to 51.31 cm, salinity (19.05 to 23.97 ppt). Dissolved oxygen content varied between 4.43 to 5.29 mg/L, calcium (129.20 to 206.37 mg/L), nitrate (0.44 to 0.50 mg/L) and ammonia (0.05 to 0.13 mg/L) also varied independently.

Quantitative Determination of Commercial Metal Anion Drugs and Pharmaceuticals using Silver Nitrate as Precipitating Agent: Conduct metric Titration Method

Gopi Mamidi and Venkateshwarlu Gandu
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/8898    Page number :88-98
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Simple, sensitive, accurate, cost effective and precise Conductometric method for quantitative determination of Five anionic commercial drugs viz.,Montelukast Sodium(MOT), Penicillin Sodium(PEN), Potassium Dobesilate(POD) , Rosuvastatin Calcium(ROS), Warfarin Sodium (WAR)were developed. The method was based on the formation of insoluble salt (Ag+[Drug]-) between the Drug anion of metal salt drugs and Silver Cation of Silver Nitrate solutions.  Aliquots of standard drug solution (2-12 mL) which is containing 2-12 mg pure drug and 0.005 M Silver Nitrate taken in burette was used for titration. The observed conductance reading was taken and corrected conductance i.e.Ω-1correct = Ω-1obs [V1+V2/V1]. A graph of corrected conductivity Vs volume of added titrant was constructed and the endpoint was determined graphically at the intersection of two lines. The amount of drugs under study was calculated according to the equation for amount of drug = V.M.R / N. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of the above five metal anionic Drugs and Pharmaceutical formulations, with results in close agreement at 95% confidence level with those obtained using spectrophotometric determination method.

Cereus Jamacaru D.C. Overwier: Biotechnological Uses and Agricultural Relevance

Jean Moisés Ferreira, Jean Carlos Vencioneck Dutra, Bárbara Rayssa Correia dos Santos, Maria do Carmo Pimentel Batitucci
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/99107    Page number :99-107
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Cereus jamacaru D.C., mandacaru, is a member of Cactaceae family widely distributed on arid and semi-arid regions around the world and is used as food and for medicinal purposes. Recent studies performed with this cactus have shown its biotechnological applications, such as in food and pharmacy industry, as well as an adjuvant in water treatment, reducing the production of toxic wastes. C. jamacaru is commonly collected in its naturally occurring environment, which may put at risk the perpetuation of the species. In this perspective, a sustainable alternative would be the implementation of management and cultivation techniques of this Cactaceae, being indispensable for the implementation of these techniques knowledge about the ecology, germination and development of this plant.

Survey of Kidney Stone Disease using multi dimension questionnaire in Kolhapur District of Maharashtra

Archana R Dhole and V. C. Yeligar
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/108114    Page number :108-114
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Urolithiasis is one of the important problems in urology exercise. The objective of this have a look at turned into to decide statistics concerning urinary tract stones in Kolhapur dist. This study was a descriptive move sectional look at performed with 100 sufferers in Kolhapur district in the age range of 11to above 65 years. There were 55% (n= one hundred) of them had been male and 45 % ware female. approximately 69% sufferers care via to drink greater than 2 liters of water as opposed to other liquids for patients who suffered from kidney stone ailment. Out of the sample forty% respondant agreed to recommendation to keep away from excessive Ca containing ingredients. Therefore, the knowledge and practices of clinical college students in the direction of urolithiasis become correct and attitudes were terrible.

Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies on Artocarpus heterophyllus

Pradeep Pal, Pawan Tiwari and Ashish Dixit
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/115119    Page number :115-119
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Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, commonly known as the jackfruit tree and belonging to the family Moraceae, is an exotic tree originally native to the Western Ghats of India. The fruits are of dietary use and are an important source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. In this article the Analgesic activity was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Antibacterial effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus in leaf were studied against Bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas auregenosa and its effect were then compared with the standard. Phytochemical screening was done by using water and ethanol extracts of leaf of the plants. Ethanol extracts of A.heterophyllus leaf showed the potent analgesic and antibacterial activity; and hence they can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Orthodontic wires of Ni-Cr and Ni-Ti alloys and its corrosion resistance in the absence and presence of Erythromycin tablets 500mg in artificial saliva

V. AgnesBrigitta, C. Thangavelu, S. Rajendran
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/120127    Page number :120-127
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Corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires of Ni-Cr and Ni-Ti alloys immersed in artificial saliva in the absence and presence of Erythromycin tablets 500 mg has been evaluated by electrochemical studies of polarization and AC impedance Spectra. From polarization study and AC impedance Spectra, it reveals that in presence of Erythromycin tablet in artificial saliva corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr alloy decreases. This is revealed by the decrease in Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and the increase in corrosion current (Icorr) value of polarization study and the decrease in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and the increases in double layer capacitance (Cdl) of AC impedance Spectra.These studies reveal that corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr alloy decreases in the order: Artificial Saliva > Artificial Saliva + Erythromycin, Hence, people clipped with orthodontic wire made of Ni-Cr alloy should avoid taking Erythromycin tablet orally. For Ni-Ti alloy, corrosion resistance decreases in the order:  Artificial Saliva + Erythromycin > Artificial Saliva. Hence, people clipped with orthodontic wire made of Ni-Ti alloy can take Erythromycin tablet orally without any hesitation. Among these two, Ni-Ti alloy is the best candidate for using orthodontic wire while taking Erythromycin tablet orally.

Effect of Chlorpyrifos (An Organophosphate) on Biochemical Constituents of Fresh Water Cat Fish Heteropneustes fossilis

Ch. Shankar, K. Thirupathi and Y. Venkaiah
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/128137    Page number :128-137
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Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide widely used insecticide in agriculture sector to control the varieties of pests and ectoparasites. The present study was under taken to analyze the effect of chlorpyrifos on biochemical constituents of fresh water cat fish H. fossilis. The fish were exposed to sub lethal concentrations of the toxicant chlorpyrifos and the variations were observed in different tissues like gill, liver, intestine, brain and muscle. The biochemical variations were observed in proteins, carbohydrates and ninhydrine positive substances at different time intervals i.e. 24, 48, 72 and 96hrs of exposures. The results revealed that the components of proteins, carbohydrates and ninhydrine positive substances were found to be declined significantly at 72 and 96 hrs compared to 24 hrs and 48 hrs time interval in different tissues of fish H. fossilis on exposure to Chlorpyrifos compared to control. The biochemical levels were found to be declined in all the tissues maybe due to the effect of insecticide Chlorpyrifos.

Studies on Antioxidant Potential of Ethanol and Chloroform Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta Indica (Neem)

Ramadass. N and Subramanian. N
DOI Number :   10.24214/AJBPR/8/4/13845    Page number :138 - 145
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Insert Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of the ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. The leaf extracts were analyzed for their in-vitro antioxidant activity using by 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The phytochemical tests were also performed. The results showed that both leaf extracts of A. indica had significant antioxidant activity. This study concluded that the specific bioactive compounds of extracts might be responsible for an antioxidant potentiality. Furthermore, the study indicates which may be used as drugs against various diseases. In this experiment ascorbic acids used as positive control.