Current Research Papers of ARJBM - Volume : 4 and Issue : 3

All Econometrics Models Normally Suffer from Three Problems Identify these Problems and Indicate how they are Dictated and Minimized in Model Estimation

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi & Prof. G. S .Namusonge, PHD.

This paper looked at econometric three problems and explained how they dictate and minimized in model estimation. The paper identified the first problem as Heteroscedasticity. In this situation a variance of a dependent variable varies across data. Through variance variability could be quantified. The paper further confirmed when heteroscedasticity exists in the variance analysis or regression analysis it invalidates statistical tests of significance that assumes that error in modeling are correlated and distributed normally. The paper also looked at autocorrelation where it confirmed that historical values influence time series data i.e. Statistics of a particular phenomenon is based on a statistics data of a previous year. It is based on observation of two scenes of different time’s i.e. years apart, months or even days. Multicollinearity could also not be left out and it focused on two or more predictor variables in a multiple regression model and confirmed their high rate of correlation. It further confirmed that Multicollinearity becomes a statistical phenomenon in which meaning that one can be linearly predicted from the others with a non-trivial degree of accuracy.

Factors Affecting the Performance of Inventory Management in Government Entities

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi

This paper investigated the role of Inventory management in public entities in Kenya. This study investigated factors affecting the performance of inventory management in Government Entities in Kenya cutting across different Entities within the Republic. A brief statement of the problem in regard to investigated factors affecting the performance of inventory management is given with specific objectives focusing on stock taking, corruption and record keeping. The researcher used descriptive and stratified sample procedure by having a representative sample that will be drawn four public entities namely Kenya National Audit Office, Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya Institute of Management and Kenya Marine and fisheries  offices which are scattered all over the country. The Methodology of the study was interviews, questionnaires and observation. The finding of the study indicated the factors affecting the performance of inventory management in Government Institutions and pinpointed areas requiring further report. This will help the organizations succeed in their operation, becoming competitive in the market and retaining their market share in the Global market. It will also help the stakeholders with vast interest in the inventory management where almost a half of the organization fortunes are held.

The Satisfaction and Loyalty Exhibited by International Tourists in Hanoi – Mediating Role of Satisfaction

Quoc Duy Nguyen

Tourist satisfaction is widely believed to be a key fact to a country’s success in its tourism businesses. In this study, tourist satisfaction is hypothesized to partially mediate the impact of destination attribute performance on loyalty. Study results show that destination attribute performance significantly influences a tourist’s overall satisfaction and loyalty, however, destination attribute performance mainly influences loyalty indirectly through satisfaction. The managerial implication from this study is that Hanoi’s Destination Management Organizations should focus their resources on controllable factors such as cleanliness, creating economic value, traditional Vietnamese foods, safety, city tours and entertainment to increase satisfaction and loyalty of international tourists.

Factoring as a Source of Business Financing

Jana Beňušová

The article is focused on factoring receivables as a management tool in corporate companies operating e-commerce, which should positively affect the financial side of the company. The theoretical part describes various sources of funding, but focused mainly on alternative source of financing to factoring. The paper defines concepts such as factoring, factoring operations, factoring types, advantages and disadvantages of factoring. Part of this work is to analyze the use of factoring in Slovakia and abroad. The work also includes a model example of using factoring in selected companies compared with short-term bank loans. The work includes calculating the cost of factoring and credit costs for better comparison. The final part is intended to summarize and evaluate the results obtained.

Key Steps in Methodology of Econometrics and Significance of Each Step in the Theory and Practice of Strategic Management.

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi & Prof. G. S .Namusonge, PHD.

This paper looked at the key steps in methodology of econometrics and significance of each step in the theory and practice of strategic management. It went further to identify the key steps i.e. statement of theory of hypothesis where the paper came up with a set of data and defined a specific hypothesis that explained the nature and shape of the set. The paper also discovered that explanatory variables must be analyzed and specified through identification of the relationship between the independent variable and independent variable. It also touched on specification of theoretical econometric model for testing theory by choosing the specific statistical tool or model that will test the hypothesis being posed. It looked at the parameters of the model by incorporating the variable to bring out model and whether he can be able to work with those variables. Work was also done on the evaluation of the estimates of parameters of the model and focused on decision making aspects. There was also valuation of the forecasting and performance of the model for proper predictions and a further use of empirical econometric model.

Classical Theories of Organization Design and their Relevance to Modern Management

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi

This paper looked at theories of organization design and their relevance to modern day organizations. A theory is an idea or a set of ideas that is intended to explain facts or events. It an idea that suggests or presents as possibly true but is not known or proven to be true. It can further be described as the general principle or ideas that relates to a particular subject. Many theories have come into the Global market as market dynamics keep on changing from time to time. This has prompted many institutions of learning to relook at their strategies and emulate theories which make a difference in their day to day working arrangement. Some academicians have defined a theory as a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained. Others have defined a theory as set of principles on which the practice of an activity is based. While others have taken a different angle by saying, a theory is as an idea used to account for a situation or justify a course of action. Today, Companies have formulated theories to guide their agenda and ensure that their strategies are anchored on the best theories in the Market. This move have seen Organizations going to the next level.

Cultures Recommended to Enhance Firms Competitive Advantage and Why Particularly Chosen

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi

Culture is one of the most important aspect in the 21st century. It is defined as shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs and understanding that are learned by socialization. Culture is defined by different aspects i.e. music, knowledge, language, religion, cuisine, social habits, and arts of a particular group of people. Thus, it can be seen as the growth of a group identity fostered by social patterns unique to the group. The word "culture" was derived from a French term, which in turn was derived from the Latin "colere," which means to tend to the earth and grow, or cultivation and nurture. "It shares its etymology with a number of other words related to actively fostering growth," Cristina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London, told Live Science. Corporate culture is the pervasive values, beliefs and attitudes that characterize a company and guide its practices. A company vision, mission and core values may be articulated to its own culture. Elements of corporate culture include a company's, human resources practices, environment and members of staff. Corporate culture is also reflected in on various components such as formal and informal setup. A corporate culture that incorporates both components succeeds more. The current global culture, which values transparency, equality and communication, a secretive company with a strictly hierarchical structure may have a public relations problem.

Consumer Perception towards Online Shopping

Saheela Butool and Aqsa Shehzadi

This study based on consumer perception toward online shopping about student and professional of Lahore. Data were collected through questionnaire. A well designed and comprehensive questionnaire was distributed to all the members of selected sample. A non-probability convenient sampling technique is used for this research. The technique of convenient sampling was used because it is suitable for conducting this type of study which focuses on complex social phenomena. A sample of 50 respondents is taken from the desired population of customers. The dependent variable used in this study was “customers’ perception”. Independent variable of this research was online shopping. This variable is further divided into sub variables. The used questionnaire comprises of two categories of questions related to the selected variables. It also showed that there is insignificant relation between gender and the personally participation in online shopping. Male and female have no effect on personally online shopping. This study has provided empirical evidence in minds of consumers as to what factors are perceived differently by consumers who prefer online shopping and those who did not prefer online shopping. The findings of this case study suggest that global companies could find high potential market where internet users are growing high among the population. In addition, findings also suggest that consumers in Pakistan have intentions to purchase from the online if the market is more convenient and secure.

Mapping Financial Literacy of Urban Poor to Articulate Extrapolative Financial Notch

CMA Dr. Kinnarry Thakkar and CS Lalita Mutreja

The financial sustainability of an economy is a function of penetration of financial services and the financial literacy amongst the populace. Literacy rate in India as per 2011 census is 74.04% but financial literacy is merely 20% as per the nodal NISM survey report 2015. The ability for managing sound personal finance contributes to better allocation and use of scarce funds at micro and macro level both. The empirical evidence supports the thought of identifying financial literacy as principal component towards reducing financial vulnerability amongst the low income groups (Lusardi 2009, Klapper 2011). Steering towards deeper inclusion in India, the 12th Five Year Plan accorded high priority towards channelizing formal resources to vulnerable groups. Despite of strenuous efforts by RBI and Central Government the impact has been scattered and wide disparity is observed even in the metro cities. To further probe into the ground reality, research paper is an attempt to examine the extent of financial literacy in the Slums of Mumbai Metropolitan using random sampling method with a sample size of 300 respondents. The main objective of the research was to formulate a predictive financial score by applying regression equation on selected parameters namely, usage of financial products and financial literacy (financial behavior, financial attitude and financial knowledge). The research is based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire.  It was found that the co-relationship between usage of modern financial products is more significant while determining the level of financial inclusivity.

Examining the Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Conflict with Organizational Commitment in the Public and Private Bank Branches in Mazandaran

Sanjar Salajeghe and Hamed Enshaei

Purpose: The presence of committed and expert staff with strong motivation is of the essential needs of any organization because organizations need those employees that go beyond their usual duties to carry out their work. The existence of such forces in any organization besides reducing absences, delays, and displacements causes a significant increase in organizational performance, better manifestation of organizational goals and so on. The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between organizational climate and organizational conflict with organizational commitment in the public and private bank branches in Mazandaran

Materials and Methods: The study method was descriptive of correlational type, and a questionnaire was used to collect data. The population of this study included 1100 staff of the public and private bank branches in Mazandaran, of whom 300 were selected by simple random sampling. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Results: The results showed a significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational commitment and its dimensions (emotional, continuous, and normative), but the relationship between organizational conflict and dimensions of organizational commitment was rejected.

Conclusion: To increase morale, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of the staff, it is necessary to meet their needs in work environment. Only those managers can provide this possibility that create an appropriate organizational climate within the organization

Examination of the Relationship between the Political Skills of Employees and their Silence Regarding the Moderator Role of Personality Characteristics and the Fear of Failure

Saeed Sayadi, Yousef Mehni

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the political skills of employees and their silence regarding the moderator role of personality characteristics and the fear of failure. The present study was conducted by using descriptive studies and correlation method in a statistical population with 110 people who working in Jiroft Agricultural Jihad. Morgan 86 was used for determining number of samples. Partial least squares approach has been used to examine the hypotheses and research questions and one sample Kolmogorov method was used to test normality of variables. SPSS 19 and Smart PLS 2 were used for data analysis and then significance level was set at 0.05. The results obtained from the study indicate that the political skills and social conscience of employees influence their silence, while the skill of interpersonal influence, networking ability and employees’ apparent sincerity do not. In addition, the results showed that the personality characteristic do not moderate the relationship between the political skills of employees and their silence. The results also showed that the fear of failure reduces the relationship between the political skills of employees and their silence. Therefore, it is suggested to increase the groundwork of employees’ perception of political skills in organization in order to reduce the silence.

An Investigation on the Effect of the Management of Rumors on Deviant Behaviors of Employees Regarding Mediating Role of Moral Intelligence in Agriculture-Jahad of the City of Jiroft

Saeed Sayadi, Ghazanfar Baghadam

The purpose of the research is to investigate the effect of the management of rumors on deviant behaviors of employees regarding mediating role of moral intelligence in Agriculture-Jahad of the city of Jiroft. The present study was conducted in a statistical population of 110 people of the employees of Agriculture-Jahad of the city of Jiroft by using descriptive studies and correlation method. The determination of the numbers of the sample was performed 86 people by Morgan Table. In this research, three questionnaires of management of rumors, deviant behaviors of employees moral intelligence were used. Reliability of the questionnaire was obtained 0.92, 0.83, 0.85 respectively, and partial least squares approach is used to evaluate the hypotheses and research questions. SPSS software version 19 and Smart PLS 2 were used to analyze data and significant level of 0.05 was considered. The results from the research showed that the management of rumors has impact on deviant behaviors of employees in Agriculture-Jahad of the city of Jiroft. Plus, the management of rumors has indirect effect on deviant behaviors of employees in Agriculture-Jahad of the city of Jiroft through mediating role of moral intelligence. Therefore, it is recommended to use managers’ moral intelligence in organization for decreasing deviant behaviors.

An Investigation in Impact of Workaholism on Occupational Burnout Based on the Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Personality Traits in Jiroft’s Agriculture Jihad

Saeid Sayadi and Ghazanfar Baghadam

The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of workaholism on occupational burnout due to the mediating role of job satisfaction and personality traits in Jiroft Agriculture Jihad. This research studies a statistical population of 110 of employees by the correlation method and descriptive study in Jiroft Agriculture Jihad. The number of samples are determined by using Morgan. In this study, four questionnaires are used. The reliability of questionnaires is obtained as a factor of 74/0 for workaholism, burnout 78/0, job satisfaction 78/0, and personality traits / 76. Partial least squares approach (PLS) is used to examine the hypothesis and research questions. For data analysis, SPSS version 19 and Smart PLS 2 is used and the significance level is set at 05/0. The results showed that workaholism is a positive and significant impact on job burnout. Furthermore, the impact of workaholism on burnout by mediating variable of personality traits is indirect, and the impact of workaholism on burnout in Jiroft Agriculture Jihad through mediating variable of job satisfaction is indirect too. Therefore, it is suggested to reduce staff burnout per identifying the range of their workaholism to prevent and take appropriate action.

Identification and Prioritization of Conflict Management Behaviors and its Effect on Employees Job Satisfaction in Bandar Anzali Customs Organization

Sanjar Salajeghe and Mohammad Reza Rezaeian

Nowadays, according to the developing atmosphere of organizations, it can be said that the conflict is a natural and inevitable matter and is appeared in different forms and for different reasons. On the other side, it should be acknowledged and mentioned that with regard to the key role of manpower capital which has attracted increasingly the attention of managers to access to the intended purposes in a proper condition, the existence of extreme conflict in the organization can be one of the reasons of leave of job and specially the employees' job dissatisfaction. So, the purpose of present research is the identification and prioritization of conflict management behaviors (integration, compromising, compulsion, avoiding and dominance) and their effect on the employees' job satisfaction. For this purpose, a study has been done among the employees of Anzali Customs Organization and the simple random sampling method has been applied for the purpose of selecting the employees who are 178 members. The collected data have been analyzed by the use of SPSS and Smart PLS software and Likert questionnaire with a scale of five response choices per statement. The results show that among the conflict management behaviors, integration and compromising have positive effect on the job satisfaction, whereas the dominance mode has had negative effect on the job satisfaction.

An Investigation on the Effect of Organizational Commitment on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Regarding Personality Characteristics of Staff and Internal Marketing in Tax Administration of Jiroft City

Sanjar Salajegheh and Ghazanfar Baghadam

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior regarding personality characteristics of staff and internal marketing in tax administration of Jiroft city. This research was conducted by using descriptive studies and correlation method in a statistical population with 110 people working in Jiroft Agriculture Jihad. The determination of the number of samples was determined 86 people using Morgan Table. Partial least squares method has been used to examine the hypothesis and the research questions. SPSS version 19 and Smart PLS 2 were used for data analysis and significance level was considered 0.05. The results of the research showed that organizational commitment does not effect on organizational citizenship behavior but organizational commitment through mediating variable of personality characteristics and internal marketing has an effect on organizational citizenship behavior indirectly. Therefore, it is suggested that individuals to be appointed to jobs proportional to their personality characteristics and organization consider staff as internal customers until organizational commitment of staff causes organizational citizenship behavior.

Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Exploring the Moderating Effect of Volunteers’ Participation Motivation in Coast Guard Personnel

Jui-Chung Kao, Fu-Chiang Yang, Rui-Hsin Kao

The objectives of this study were to understand the relationship between the perceived organizational support (POS) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of coast guard personnel, and to explore if volunteer motivation has a moderating effect on such a relationship. The study subjects were first-line governmental coast guard personnel in Taiwan. A total of 481 subjects (both managers and general staff) were interviewed. It was found that POS has a positive effect on individuals’ OCB. It was also found that POS has a positive effect on OCB. Besides, volunteers’ participation motivation (VPM) was found to have a positive effect on OCB through the moderation of VPM.