Current Research Papers of ARJBM - Volume : 4 and Issue : 4

Hypothesis Development

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi

This paper looked at hypothesis development. Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for facts and can be subjected to tests through thorough investigations. Depending with the situation at hand, researcher’s deals with hypothesis as a guess or a basis of reasoning making it an area of interest in the Global Market. Hypothesis therefor is an important tool, in observations and making concrete decision of delicate situation and complicated matters at hand. It is a very reliable tool for gauging the situation. Ideas are best placed in a hypothesis scale and tested over time. The existing theories in the market has made it a reference point where many researchers have embarked on and derive their information from.

Probability and Non Probability Sampling

Susan Wanjiru Mwangi

This paper looked at probability and non-probability sampling. Probability is the measure of the possibility that an activity will happen. 0 and 1 are quantified in Probability where, loosely speaking, 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty. Certainty comes in when there is higher probability of occurrence .A simple example is the rain expectation. Since the no one can tell when the rain will fall, ("rain" and "sun") are both equally probable; the probability of "rain" equals the probability of "sun"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "rain" or "sun" is ½.This is a common scenario when you visit a town along the equator line (which could also be written as 0.5 or 50%). Therefore probability has been defined as branch of mathematics that deals with calculations of the likelihood of a given event and most of the times the trials of either have no effect on the other.

Access to Health Services in Vietnam

Minh Duc Phung and Mai Linh Chu

Health is increasingly a critical concern in the current context. Aware of the importance of health and its relationship with development of a country, Vietnam has kept on improving its health care system and achieved remarkable results. This effort also has succeeded in preventing outbreak of diseases, but some new ones have appeared in recent times, which are really new challenges and require Vietnam to attempt more in this field. How to improve accessibility and quality of health care services has always been the subject of discussion in Vietnam. The indicators show that ethnic minorities, mountain, rural and poor people are vulnerable groups who usually have a lower capacity in accessing health care services. On one hand, this results from their disadvantaged conditions. On the other hand, the reasons come right from the weakness of the health care system where health care delivery is unqualified and financial protection is not good enough. This thesis, therefore, aims to explore which determinants have impacts on health care utilization, using the Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2014. It is found that gender, age, health status, urbanity, and ethnicity are correlated. Especially, health insurance helps increase health care contacts (about 32 percent and 4 percent for outpatient and inpatient contacts, respectively).Health is increasingly a critical concern in the current context. Aware of the importance of health and its relationship with development of a country, Vietnam has kept on improving its health care system and achieved remarkable results. This effort also has succeeded in preventing outbreak of diseases, but some new ones have appeared in recent times, which are really new challenges and require Vietnam to attempt more in this field. How to improve accessibility and quality of health care services has always been the subject of discussion in Vietnam. The indicators show that ethnic minorities, mountain, rural and poor people are vulnerable groups who usually have a lower capacity in accessing health care services. On one hand, this results from their disadvantaged conditions. On the other hand, the reasons come right from the weakness of the health care system where health care delivery is unqualified and financial protection is not good enough. This thesis, therefore, aims to explore which determinants have impacts on health care utilization, using the Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2014. It is found that gender, age, health status, urbanity, and ethnicity are correlated. Especially, health insurance helps increase health care contacts (about 32 percent and 4 percent for outpatient and inpatient contacts, respectively).

An Investigation into the Development of a Customised Model for Successful Smallholder Dairy Farming in Gauteng

Helene Pheiffer and Prof. Antoine F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

Smallholder dairy production not only supports household nutrition but also stimulates food sustainability and rural economy through diversified agricultural production and employment opportunities in the dairy value chain. Despite the growing demand for dairy and the government’s initiative for rural development as constituted by the National Development Plan, the prevalence of smallholder dairy production in Gauteng is not apparent. This research study aimed to investigate all the factors preventing smallholder dairy farmers to produce optimally, identify the success criteria for successful dairy farming, and investigate best practices of developing countries to make recommendations for a customised smallholder dairy farming model in Gauteng. An exploratory qualitative research approach was followed to gain insight into the success criteria for dairy farming and the perceptions of role players in the dairy chain regarding smallholder dairy development. A focus group comprising six industry experts were used to establish the success criteria for smallholder dairy farming. Ten individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with role players involved in smallholder development. This study forms the basis for further studies to test the viability of the development model for smallholder dairy farmers.

Personnel Policy in Military Unit

Radka Vaníčková, Kateřina Bočková, Dáša Porubčanová, Daniel Lajčin

The goal of this paper is to analyse the current and future state personnel policy in the military service in relation to the objectives set HR strategy. For creation, the contribution was elected military unit 44. The light motorized battalion locater placing the crew in Jindřichův Hradec. The first section handles the findings from the literature and available primary and secondary sources with links to the amendment to Act no. 221/1999 Coll. on Professional Soldiers, as amended in comparison with the satisfaction survey of professional soldiers. Opinions, attitudes soldiers, suggestions, and recommendations are formulated through open interviews with commanders of military units, including the survey. In the second part is designed personnel policy in the environment of the military unit with respect to the future.

Examining the Effect of Internal Control Systems on Business Profitability among Selected Commercial Banks in Ghana

Issah Osman, Gayomey John and Abraham Mensah Acquah

Internal control systems are viewed as an important aspect of operations of organizations since its direct how the activities of an organization are carried out. It also helps to prevent misallocation of resources and brings efficiency in an entity's activities. Recently most Banks in Ghana have not achieved their operational target, employees, both in public and private sector engage in fraudulent activities which tarnish the corporate image of these organizations leading to waste of resources to regain the tainted image which affect their operations and profitability. The core objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of internal control systems on business profitability among selected commercial banks in Ghana. The study employed quantitative approach and used multiple regression model to analyze the primary data collected with the help of Likert scale. The study revealed internal control system has a positive effect on the profitability of the commercial banks. There exists a positive and significant relationship between internal control components (control environment, risk assessment, information and communication and control activities) and banks’ profitability.

Labor Use and Management in Vietnamese Craft Villages: A Case Study in Tu Son Town, Bac Ninh Province

Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh, Philippe Lebailly

The findings of the research on 150 laborers in three craft villages show that 41.33 percent of labor are concentrated in the age group of 30-45, of these laborers men is accounted for over 57 percent, and only 26 percent are skilled labor. Most of the laborers are working in noisy and unsafe conditions, and less than 30% of them are equipped with labor protection equipment. Moreover, the prevailing salaries of laborers are from 3 to 5 million VND per month whereas the rate of labor contracted is very low (the highest is about 23% at Da Hoi), that makes labourers are less satisfied with work. In order to determine factors effecting laborer’s satisfaction with work, the authors use Exploratory Factor Analysis and the results show that Cronbach Alfa coefficient of each group is more than 0.6. That indicates the use of 30 observation variations belonging to 5 factors in the study is suitable. Additionally, logistic model reports that working conditions, income, welfare policies and gender have a statistically significant effect on job satisfaction of labourers. When the score of the importance of working condition increases 1 point, the probability of workers satisfy with their works increases 1.307 time. When the score of importance of income increases 1 point, the probability of satisfaction increases 1.494 time. When the score of importance of treatment policy increases 1 point, the probability of satisfaction increases 1.329 time.  Therefore craft villages need to improve these factors in order to improve the efficiency of labour.

 

An Investigation of the Causes of IT Project Failure at Retail Banks in South Africa

Matshidiso Grace Mmotlana, Dr Dennis Laxton

Causes of IT project failure have been an area of interest in the research field for many years. Studies continue to be conducted as technology improves and more organisations inject cash in building efficient processes. In particular, banks invest in technology to centralise a customer and provide better services. Over the years, IT project failures have been noted as being significantly high. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of IT project failure at retail banks in South Africa. A questionnaire was administered through electronic means to a sample of 60 respondents consisting of a combination of Project Managers and Programme Managers from two of the Four Big Banks in South Africa. A quantitative methodology was employed to conduct the study. The study revealed that IT project failure at the retail banks in South Africa is not as prevalent as it is in other parts of the world. There is an estimated IT project failure rate of 18.50% among the banks studied. The study was limited by economic and time constraints, and further studies are recommended.

An Evaluation of the Customer Perceptions towards Chinese Consumer Electronic Brands in Cape Town

Ebrahim S. Khan and Christo A. Scheepers

Chinese Consumer Electronic Brands (CCEB’s) are expanding at a rapid rate not only in Cape Town but globally. An investigation was conducted to understand whether the gains in market share can be translated into an increase in brand performance and loyalty. It aimed to investigate whether the historical investment transactions concluded by the Chinese on the African continent can influence consumer perceptions of Chinese consumer facing brands in Cape Town. The literature review highlighted that there are many journals articulating the negative perception created by Chinese investors due to their involvement in alleged corruption, importation of Chinese labour, and illegal repatriation of profit. While these issues are publicised in the media, the research undertaken highlights that the Chinese are not treated objectively. The investigation provided evidence to counter existing literature that depicts the Chinese as negative investors in Cape Town and the rest of the continent. Evidence was also presented to highlight the correlation between a consumers’ perception and the origination of a brand also known as country of origin (COO). Finally the thesis focused on the importance for CCEB’s to understand the importance to consider partnering with the local technology ecosystem to drive innovation and commercial opportunity generation in Cape Town. Key themes were identified during the primary research collection process, where the identification of key areas CCEB’s should consider to appoint at a corporate executive management level to enhance their image amongst consumers in Cape Town.

A Model Proposal for the Effect of Global Standardization and Localization Trend on Knowledge Management Process in Multinational Companies

Özgür Atılgan

Multinational companies are one of the major actors in the globalizing world. In the circumstances of growing markets, developing technology and increasing competition the successful multinational companies are usually those which are able to manage the knowledge. While some multinational companies reflect global standardization trend on knowledge management, others adopt localization in the knowledge management process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standardization and localization trends on knowledge management process in multinational companies and offer a suitable model for further research.

Empirical Analysis of Performance Contracting and the Effectiveness of Service Delivery in the Public Sector

Timothy C. Okech and Christine N. Nzyoka

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of performance contracting on the effectiveness of service delivery in selected state agencies and departments. The study pursued twofold objectives namely to determine how performance contracting impacts on service delivery and to establish the strategies in place to address performance contracting. Applying descriptive research design, the target population constituted employees in selected state agencies and departments identified using simple random sampling. Both primary and secondary data were collected with secondary data collected through review of published literature, while primary data was collected using questionnaires and key informant interview guide. A code book was developed for purposes of data coding before the data collected was analyzed to obtain both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study reveals existence of a positive strong relationship between performance contracting and effectiveness in the delivery of services in terms of increased demand, satisfaction of the customers, reduced waiting time and customer complains, and timely delivery of services. Various strategies seem to have been initiated in the implementation process including continuous training of employees on performance contracting; initiating policies for fast tracking performance targets; provision of resources to facilitate performance contracting, among others. The study recommends implementation of performance contracting in all public institution; introduction and implementation of strategies that reward performing and non performing employees, training and capacity building programs, establishing an independent institution to negotiate performance contracts and carry out evaluation objectively.