Research Papers of ACTAVELIT


Volume : 2 | Issue : 1

Page Number:

Modeling the Effect of Momentum Transfer on Competitive Inhibition of Hydrocarbon Degradation in Pond System: Case Study of Dry Season

Peter Chukwuemeka Ukpaka, Vincent Gabriel Nnadi & Clement Akpado
DOI Number :      Page number :1-13

Mathematical models were developed and formulated to determine the effect of momentum transfer on competitive inhibition of individual hydrocarbon degradation in pond system for dry season. Mathematical technique known as separation of variables was applied to the general solution from the hydrodynamic model. A new correlation has been developed in this research for predicting competitive inhibition of individual hydrocarbon degradation in a continuous discharge of wastewater in a pond system for dry season. The degradation rate of individual hydrocarbon was estimated and attributed to the competitive inhibition upon the influence of the momentum transfer in pond system. The predictions of the correlation are in acceptable agreement with the theoretical data demonstrating the reliability of this predictive technique for estimating the effect of momentum transfer on competitive inhibition hydrocarbon degradation in a pond for dry season was developed in this paper. Accurate experimental data on additional systems are needed to develop a reliable momentum transfer theory particularly for process representation at wind velocity higher then discharged velocity. The results obtained showed that as the momentum increases the substrate concentration decreased upon the influence of competitive inhibition. Significant changes in the degradation of individual hydrocarbon were observed when the mass and velocity of contaminant in the system is changed This work therefore presents comprehensive and feasible models for monitoring and predicting the rates of individual substrate concentration gradient upon the influence of momentum transfer and individual relationship of substrate inhibiting one another in the pond system. It is found that the developed model is useful in monitoring and predicting the effect of momentum on competitive inhibition of individual hydrocarbon degradation in pond system.

Studying the Synergistic Effect of Monochloramine and Glutaraldelyde Biocides against Biofilm Microorganisms in Produced Water

Amadi, Stephen; Ukpaka Chukwukemeka Peter and Igwe, Innocent
DOI Number :      Page number :14-45

The synergistic effect of an oxidizing biocide (monochloramine) and a non-oxidizing biocide (glutaraldehyde) against biofilm microorganisms in produced water system have been investigated. The combined effect of these two biocides was also compared to their individual effect when applied independently. Batch reactors were used for the investigation of biofilm attachment on polyvinylchloride (PVC) slides with the aid of chocolate agar (enriched medium), in produced water. The effects of the biocides on biofilm mass were assessed by comparing the biofilm mass of the control samples (without the addition of biocides) to the biofilm mass of the test samples (after the addition of biocides). The organic constituents of the biofilm on each slide were evaluated as spectrophotometric analysis of protein and polysaccharide contents using modified Lowry method and phenol-sulphuric acid method, respectively. The biofilm mass of control samples and test samples were statistically significant since confidence levels higher than 95 % and 99 % were obtained. This shows that, in all test cases, the biocides applied to the produced water affected the accumulated biofilm on the PVC slides. The synergy of monochloramine with glutaraldehyde caused a greater reduction in the final biofilm mass than monochloramine or glutaraldehyde acting independently. Monochloramine proved to be more effective against biofilm-microorganisms than glutaraldehyde. Mature biofilms proved more resistant to applied biocides. The combined biocides caused greater reduction in total protein and polysaccharide contents of biofilms, respectively, than monochloramine or glutaraldehyde acting independently. The result indicated strong antimicrobial value for the combination of oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides against biofilmmicroorganisms.

Exogenously Applied Manganese Alleviates Cadmium Toxicity in Anatomy of Matricaria chamomilla Plants

Zarinkamar Fatemeh, Rahmani Fatemeh
DOI Number :      Page number :46-56

In the present study, we investigated the interaction of Mn with Cd toxicity in the reproductive stage of chamomile plants in a hydroponic culture. Purpose of this research was to better understand the effects of manganese on cadmium toxicity alleviation. For this, the effects of different concentrations of cadmium and manganese (120 µM Cd،180 µM Cd, 120 µM Cd+0/3mM Mn, 120µM Cd+0/6 mM Mn, 180µM Cd +0/3mM Mn,180µMCd +0/6mMMn,0/3mMMn, 0/6mMMn) On Matricaria chamomilla L. Were studied in reproductive stages compared to control condition. Chamomile seeds were planted under greenhouse conditions. At the early vegetative stage, chamomile seedlings were transferred into 1/2 Hoagland solution. After a week of adaptation to the new environment, the seedlings were treated with different concentrations of cadmium and manganese for 18 days. Based on the results, Mn could greatly improve cadmium toxicity effects on chamomile. Morphological studies showed increase in root and shoot dry weight ,root elongation and increase of leaf number in combined treatment of Cd and Mn. Anatomical studies indicated an increase in the thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, phloem, xylem and secretor duct while are duct was observed in the upper and lower cuticle thickness. Data obtained from physiological studies also showed chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were improved in Cd-stressed plants treated with 0.3mM Mn.

Impact of Diacetyl (Artificial Butter) on Some Neurotransmitter Contents in Different Brain Areas and Testosterone of Male Albino Rats.

A. E. Bawazir
DOI Number :      Page number :57-68

Diacetyl is naturally found in foods and is also used as a synthetic flavoring agent and an aroma carrier in foods, including butter, caramel, vinegar, dairy products, and coffee and is used in a wide variety of food products. The present work was carried out to study the impact of Artificial Butter Flavoring on some neurotransmitter contents in different brain areas, testosterone hormone and testicular of male albino rats. Results showed that the chronic daily oral administration of Diacetyl caused significant decrease in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (Cerebellum, striatum,cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brain steam and hippocampus) of male albino rats. The data showed that the daily oral administration of of diacetyl After 1 week the effect of chronic oral administration of diacetyl on testicles of male albino rat after 1 week causing a marked reduction of spermatogenesis (hypo-spermatogenesis) and tubules showing partial late arrest with a marked reduction of mature sperms and after 2 week caused an increase in tubular dysfunction and an arrest in testicles. It can be concluded that Diacetyl may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug improved the central nervous system also led to the reductions in risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Diacetyl could be used as a protector against Alzheimer's and Albarkson a result of the different characteristics.

Effect of Cross Linking on Chitosan-Based Nanoparticle for Enhanced Removal of Atrazine in Water.

Saburi Abimbola Atanda, Caroline Akinremi, Sheriff Adewuyi and Sumaila Mejidac
DOI Number :      Page number :69-77

Chitosan is a biodegradable, non-toxic polymer that have excellent properties used in treatment of sewage effluents, purification of drinking water and others, however it has a low adsorption capacity which limit its application. This research included the synthesis of cross linked chitosan with ethylene diaminetetraaceticacetic acid in a condensation reaction, characterization of the cross linked chitosan-EDTA and its precursor using infra-red spectrophotometry, thermo gravimetric analysis and the examination of performance of the nanoparticles in the removal of atrazine an organochlorine in water. Percentage removal of atrazine was determined by calculating the difference in the absorbance at any particular time with that of the initial. The IR spectra of cross linked EDTA and its precursor indicated the presence of various vibrational stretching frequencies of expected major functional groups. Thermo gravimetric (TG) curves of cross linked chitosan-EDTA revealed both endothermic and exothermic peak. 0.3 g dosage of cross-linked chitosan-EDTA and its precursor gave 62.82 % and 46.51 % in 40 minutes and 60 minutes respectively in the removal of 15 ppm atrazine. The result showed that the removal of atrazine in water sample was significantly higher (p< 0.01) using cross-linked chitosan-EDTA (62.67%) compared to its precursor (46.51%). This showed that crosslinking improved adsorption sites in the modified chitosan with enhanced adsorption capacity which might not have been totally consumed in the reaction.