Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the largest health emergencies and highest challenges in this century, because in the last two decades the number of patients with Diabetes has increased to almost double, currently affecting lakhs of people all over the world. One of the most serious consequences of this increase is the onset of type 2 Diabetes in children, adolescents and young people, the main causes being an unhealthy lifestyle: unhealthy food, sedentary lifestyle, which, most of the times, lead to obesity. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the main causative factor of death all over the world, a reason for which there are required prevention programs worldwide along with some natural solutions through plants. Many plants have shown potential effect as anti-hyperglycemic agents in Indian system of medicine, including Ayurveda to effectively manage Diabetes and Pre-diabetes. One such important plant is kundru.
Leaves of kundru or ivy gourd; Coccinia indica, a member of Cucurbitaceae family, is a common plant of India, which is being used by Indians for centuries as a food as well as medicine. The therapeutic potential of kundru against Madhumeha or diabetes mellitus is due to its multi-dimensional effects, it (1) Increases the Level of Plasma Insulin, (2) Increases Liver Hexokinase activity, (3) Depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, (4) Shows β-cell regeneration and (5) increases Glycogen synthetase activity. The various scientific studies have established the effectiveness of kundru and simultaneously provides sufficient ground for the development of potential anti-hyperglycemic drug.
The present work aims on a series of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazole derivatives of α-β dibromochalcones which were synthesized by the reaction of α-β dibromochalcones with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Various α-β dibromochalcones were prepared by the reaction of respective chalcones with TetraButylAmmoniumTribromide (TBABr3) which causes regioselective bromination of chalcones and gives high yield without polymerization. The synthesized compounds were characterized and subsequently evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Drugs obtained from the plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives have been recognized as the core pharmacoactive moiety for the diverse biological activities. The importance of the natural product based drug has generated interest to develop efficient extraction methods of these important classes of compounds to generate new therapeutic leads for various diseases. The biological activities of one of the privileged plant have been summarized in a few review articles. In view of these, the aim of this review is to provide a platform to know the importance of the Ocimum Genus, which is widely known as Tulsi in the entire Indian population. A keen Attention has been focused on those literature reports wherein the use of Tulsi and cancer is described. The use of plant would be beneficial for the drug discovery scientist to develop an efficient formulation of the crude drug, which will be a magical therapeutic agent, with the many advantages.
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is an autoimmuneoresponse of the body which leads to itching, red rash and scaling of the skin. Treatment of AD involves antihistamines, steroids, immunosuppressant and phototherapy. Tacrolimus is a macrolide which is widely used for the treatment of AD in adults and paediatric patients. Tacrolimus suppress the immunoresponse of the body. An attempt has been made to prepare emulgel for better penetration and efficacy. Tacrolimus is characterized by IR and physical compatibility of the tacrolimus with excipient is observed. The emulgel is prepared by simple emulsification method and drug is in dissolved form. The formulations were designed by varying the concentration of polymer, polysorbate and sorbitan oleate. The formulations were evaluated for the appearance, pH, spreadability, viscosity, extrudability and drug content. All the evaluation parameters were satisfactory. In-vitro evaluation of the optimized formulation were completed and TGF 01 and 03 has higher drug release than the marketed formulations. Optimized formulations were subjected to the stabiity study. All the physical and chemical parameters were satisfactory for 3month stability at accelerated, intermediate and room temperature storage condition. The drug release pattern of the TGF 03 is much better than the TGF 01 in stability study.
The present work was aimed to develop rapid UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Linagliptin and Metformin in combined dosage forms. In the present study simultaneous equations technique (Method A) and absorbance ratio technique (Method B) has been employed to estimate and validate Metformin (MET) and Linagliptin (LGN) for their spectrophotometric analysis. Both drugs were estimated by applying simultaneous equations method and absorbance ratio method by using methanol as solvent. Linearity was accessed in the range of 5-40 µg/mL and 4-32 µg/mL for MET and LGN, respectively for both the methods. Spectral study was carried at 236 nm and 298 nm for MET and LGN, respectively by method A and 236 nm and 232 nm for MET and LGN by method B, respectively. The linear regression parameters were within limits with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and % RSD < 2 for both the drugs. All the analytical validation parameters for the optimized methods were validated and proved to be specific, robust, precise and accurate for the quality control of the drugs in their pharmaceutical preparation.
Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ethionamide (ETN) in bulk drug and tablets. The methods are based on the reaction of ETN as n-donor with s–acceptor iodine (method A) and p-acceptor, picric acid (method B) in chloroform. The resultant charge-transfer complexes were measured at 400 nm for iodine (method A) and at 420 nm for picric acid (method B). Various variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. Under the optimum reaction conditions linear relationships with good correlation coefficients were found between absorbance and concentration of ETN in the ranges, 1-20 and 2-45 µg mL-1, for method A and method B, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were: 0.24 and 0.73 µg mL-1 (method A), and 0.96 and 2.92 µg mL-1 (method B). A Job’s plot of optical density versus the molar ratio of ETN to each of the acceptors under consideration showed 1:1 (donor: acceptor) ratio. The methods were validated for selectivity, robustness and ruggedness, accuracy and precision. Presently developed methods were applied successfully to the determination of ETN in tablets with effective accuracy and precision and without incumbrance from common additives. The results compared approvingly with those of the official method.
Effect of ethanol root extract of Dennettiatripetalaon the lipid profile and some antioxidant parameters in wistar rats administered thermoxidized palm oil was investigated. Twenty male wistar rats divided into 4 groups of five rats each were used for the study. Group I served as the positive control group, group II received 1ml of thermoxidized palm oil, daily group III received 1ml of thermoxidized palm oil and 50mg/kg of ethanol root extract daily while group IV received 1ml of thermoxidized palm oil and 100mg/kg ethanol root extract daily. After 21 days of treatment the animals were fasted for 24 hours and sacrificed. Standard analytical methods were used to measure the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (VLDL-C). From the results, there was statistically significant change (P< 0.05) in the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C (183.00 ± 5.90, 72.40 ± 16.0, 50.80 ± 2.14, 126.80 ± 7.83, 16.40 ± 3.20) in animals treated with 100g/kg of extract when compared to their respective negative control groups (243.40 ± 5.22, 101.80 ± 5.80, 32.00 ± 2.34, 165.60 ± 11.73, 20.40 ± 1.14). Also treatment with 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg of extract produced a statistically significant decrease in the level of MDA, GPx and CAT when compared with the control. From the results, it can be deduced that consumption of thermoxidized palm oil causes adverse increase in lipid profile parameter and oxidative stress indices. The administration of root extract of Dennettiatripetala tends to reverse the increase and thus can be said to possess antioxidative and antihyperlipidaemic potentials.